Ecosystems

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 198–222 | Cite as

Historical Changes in Marine Resources, Food-web Structure and Ecosystem Functioning in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean

Article

Abstract

The Mediterranean Sea has been strongly influenced by human activities for millennia. Although the environmental history of its surrounding terrestrial ecosystems has received considerable study, historical changes in its marine realm are less known. We used a multidisciplinary approach combining paleontological, archeological, historical, fisheries, and ecological data to reconstruct past changes in marine populations, habitats, and water quality in the Adriatic Sea. Then, we constructed binary food webs for different historical periods to analyze possible changes in food-web structure and functioning over time. Our results indicate that human activities have influenced marine resource abundance since at least Roman times and accelerated in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Today, 98% of traditional marine resources are depleted to less than 50% of former abundance, with large (>1 m) predators and consumers being most affected. With 37% of investigated species rare and 11% extirpated, diversity has shifted towards smaller, lower trophic-level species, further aggravated by more than 40 species invasions. Species providing habitat and filter functions have been reduced by 75%, contributing to the degradation of water quality and increased eutrophication. Increased exploitation and functional extinctions have altered and simplified food-web structure over time, especially by changing the proportions of top predators, intermediate consumers, and basal species. Moreover, simulations of species losses indicate that today’s ecosystems may be less robust to species extinctions than in the past. Our results illustrate the long-term and far-reaching consequences human activities can have on marine food webs and ecosystems.

Keywords

ecological history marine populations exploitation habitat loss eutrophication extinction invasion food-web structure ecosystem modelling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to S. Kidwell, M. Kirby, H. Lenihan, S. Raicevich, and F. Ferretti for historical information, and to T. Romanuk for advice on food-web modelling. Financial support was provided by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis’ Long-term Marine Records working group, the Census of Marine Life’s FMAP project, and post-doctoral fellowships to M.C. from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology and the Marie-Curie International Outgoing Fellowships (IOF; Call: FP7-PEOPLE-2007-4-1-IOF) to ECOFUN.

Supplementary material

10021_2010_9404_MOESM1_ESM.doc (772 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 772 kb)

References

  1. AdriaMed. 2003. Aspects of Fish Markets in the Adriatic Sea. AdriaMed Tech Doc 10:152.Google Scholar
  2. Airoldi L, Beck MW. 2007. Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 45:345–405.Google Scholar
  3. Appuhn KR 1999. Environmental politics and state power in early modern Venice, 1300-1650. Ph.D. thesis. Evanston: Northwestern University. 269 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Barmawidjaja DM, van der Zwaan GJ, Jorissen FJ, Puškaric S. 1995. 150 years eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: evidence from a benthic foraminiferal record. Mar Geol 122:367–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bearzi G, Reeves RR, Notarbartolo-di-Sciara G, Politi E, Cañadas A, Frantzis A, Mussi B. 2003. Ecology, status and conservation of short-beaked common dolphins. Mamm Rev 33:224–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bearzi G, Holcer D, Notarbartolo di Sciara G. 2004. The role of historical dolphin takes and habitat degradation in shaping the present status of northern Adriatic cetaceans. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 14:363–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bekker-Nielsen T. 2005. The technology and productivity of ancient sea fishing. In: Bekker-Nielsen T, Ed. Ancient fishing and fish processing in the Black Sea region. Aarhus (DK): Aarhus University Press. p 83–95.Google Scholar
  8. Benović A, Justić D, Bender A. 1987. Enigmatic changes in the hydromedusan fauna of the northern Adriatic Sea. Nature 326:597–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Billard R, Lecointre G. 2001. Biology and conservation of sturgeon and paddlefishes. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries 10:335–92.Google Scholar
  10. BLI (BirdLife International). 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends, and conservation status. BirdLife Conserv Ser 12:374.Google Scholar
  11. Block BA. 2000. Of tuna and tonnarotti. Science 289:876–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blondel J, Aronson J. 1999. Biology and wildlife in the Mediterranean Region. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 352.Google Scholar
  13. Bode M. 2002. Wale und Walfang in der Antike. Laverna 13:1–23.Google Scholar
  14. Boero F. 2001. Adriatic ecological history: a link between jelly outbreaks, red tides, mass mor- talities, overfishing, mucilages, and thaliacean plakton? CIESM Workshop Ser 14:44–6.Google Scholar
  15. Bombace G. 1992. Fisheries of the Adriatic Sea. In: Colombo G, Ferrari I, Ceccherelli VU, Rossi R, Eds. Marine eutrophication and population dynamics. Fredensborg: Olsen and Olsen. p 379–89.Google Scholar
  16. Botter L, Giovanardi O, Raicevich S. 2006. Chioggia’s fleet fishery migration in the Adriatic Sea between 19th and the early 20th century. J Mediterr Stud 16:27–44.Google Scholar
  17. Brambati A. 1992. Origin and evolution of the Adriatic Sea. In: Colombo G, Ferrari I, Ceccherelli VU, Rossi R, Eds. Marine Eutrophication and Population Dynamics. Fredensborg: Olson and Olson. p 327–46.Google Scholar
  18. Bresc H. 2000. Pêche et commerce du corail en Méditerranée de l’Antiquitè au Moyen Age. In: Morel JP, Rondi-Costanzo C, Ugolini D, Eds. Corallo di ieri, corallo di oggi. Scienze e materiali del patrimonio culturale 5. Bari: Edipuglia. p 41–53.Google Scholar
  19. Casale P, Laurent L, De Metrio G. 2004. Incidental capture of marine turtles by the Italian trawl fishery in the north Adriatic Sea. Biol Conserv 119:287–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cencini C. 1998. Physical processes and human activities in the evolution of the Po delta, Italy. J Coastal Res 14:774–93.Google Scholar
  21. Ceron-Carrasco R, Bass B. 2001. Molluscan exploitation patterns: evidence of the uses of the immediate environment at Susac. In: Society for American Archaeology 66th Annual Meeting, 18–22 April 2001, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  22. Christensen V, Guenette S, Heymans JJ, Walters CJ, Watson R, Zeller D, Pauly D. 2003. Hundred-year decline of North Atlantic predatory fishes. Fish Fish 4:1–24.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke KR, Gurley RN. 2006. PRIMER v6: user manual/tutorial (Plymouth Routines in Multivariate Ecological Research). Plymouth: Primer-E Ltd. p 190.Google Scholar
  24. CNHM (Croatian Natural History Museum). 2009. Adriatic Marine Turtle Program. http://www.hpm.hr/turtles/koruvod.htm.
  25. Coll M, Lotze HK, Romanuk TN. 2008. Structural degradation in Mediterranean Sea food webs: Testing ecological hypotheses using stochastic and mass-balance modelling. Ecosystems 11:939–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coll M, Shannon LJ, Yemane D, Link JS, Ojaveer H, Neira S, Jouffre D, Labrosse P, Heymans JJ, Fulton EA, Shin Y-J. 2010a. Ranking the ecological relative status of exploited marine ecosystems. ICES J Mar Sci 67:769–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coll M, Piroddi C, Kaschner K, Ben Rais Lasram F, Steenbeek J, Aguzzi J, Ballesteros E, Nike Bianchi C, Corbera J, Dailianis T, Danovaro R, Estrada M, Froglia C, Galil BS, Gasol JM, Gertwagen R, Gil J, Guilhaumon F, Kesner-Reyes K, Kitsos M-S, Koukouras A, Lampadariou N, Laxamana E, López-Fé de la Cuadra CM, Lotze HK, Martin D, Mouillot D, Oro D, Raicevich S, Rius-Barile J, Saiz-Salinas JI, San Vicente C, Somot S, Templado J, Turon X, Vafidis D, Villanueva R, Voultsiadou E. 2010b. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns and threats. PLoS ONE 5(8):e11842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coll M, Santojanni A, Palomera I, Arnesi E. 2010c. Ecosystem assessment of the North-Central Adriatic (Mediterranean Sea): towards a multivariate reference framework. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 417:193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Collar NJ, Long AJ, Robles Gil P, Rojo J. 2007. Birds and people: bonds in a timeless journey. Mexico City: CEMEX-Agrupacion Sierra Madre-BirdLife International. p 360.Google Scholar
  30. Corcoran TH. 1957. The Roman fishing industry of the late republic and early empire. Ph.D. thesis. Evanston: Northwestern University. 189p.Google Scholar
  31. Council of Europe. 1994. Protection of coastal areas of the Adriatic Sea. Strassbourg: Council of Europe. 164 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Danovaro R, Fonda Umani S, Pusceddu A. 2009. Climate change and the potential spreading of marine mucilage and microbial pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea. PLoS ONE 4:e7006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Della Casa P, Bass B. 2001. Archaeological evidence from the Island of Susac, Croatia. Preliminary Report, Department of Prehistory, University of Zurich. http://www.prehist.uzh.ch/forschung/susac/susacset1.html.
  34. Dulvy N, Sadovy Y, Reynolds JD. 2003. Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish Fish 4:25–64.Google Scholar
  35. Dunne JA, Williams RJ, Martinez ND. 2002a. Food-web structure and network theory: The role of connectance and size. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:12917–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dunne JA, Williams RJ, Martinez ND. 2002b. Network structure and biodiversity loss in food webs: robustness increases with connectance. Ecol Lett 5:558–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dunne JA, Williams RJ, Martinez ND, Wood RA, Erwin DH. 2008. Compilation and network analyses of Cambrian food webs. PLoS Biol 6:e102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. EEA (European Environment Agency). 1999. State and pressures of the marine and coastal Mediterranean environment. Environ Assess Ser 5:44p.Google Scholar
  39. EEA (European Environment Agency). 2002. Indicator fact sheet: Fish stocks outside safe biological limits. Copenhagen: European Environmental Agency. p 8.Google Scholar
  40. Evans PGH. 1987. The natural history of whales and dolphins. New York: Facts on File Publications. p 343.Google Scholar
  41. Eyton TC. 1858. A history of the oyster and the oyster fisheries. London: Van Voorst. p 40.Google Scholar
  42. Faber GL. 1883. The fisheries of the Adriatic and the fish thereof. London: Bernard Quarich. p 292.Google Scholar
  43. FAO. 1984. Report of the third technical consultation on the stock assessment in the Adriatic. FAO Fisheries Reports R290, 255 pp.Google Scholar
  44. FAO. 2005. Review of the state of world marine fishery resources. FAO Fish Tech Paper 457:235p.Google Scholar
  45. FAO. 2010. Corallium rubrum, Species Fact Sheets, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, FAO. http://www.fao.org/fishery/species/3611/en.
  46. FAO-FishStat. 2010. Mediterranean and Black Sea (GFCM) capture production 1970-2006 (Released 2010). Regional dataset for Adriatic Sea (Region 2.1). Available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/stat/windows/fishplus/gfcm.zip.
  47. Ferretti F, Myers RA, Serena F, Lotze HK. 2008. Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea. Conserv Biol 22:952–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ferretti F, Worm B, Britten GL, Heithaus MR, Lotze HK. 2010. Patterns and ecosystem consequences of shark declines in the ocean. Ecol Lett 13:1055–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fonda Umani S. 2004. Northern Adriatic Sea, Chapter 18. Wassmann P, Olli K, Eds. Drainage basin nutrient inputs and eutrophication: an integrated approach. http://lepo.it.da.ut.ee/~olli/eutr/html/htmlBook.html.
  50. Fortibuoni T, Giovanardi O, Libralato S, Raicevich S, Solidoro C. 2008. Integrating historical naturalists’ descriptions and statistical-scientific data to describe changes in fish assemblages over the last two centuries in the Northern Adriatic Sea. ICES CM 2008/R: 14.Google Scholar
  51. Frid C, Hammer C, Law R, Loeng H, Pawlak JF, Reid PC, Tasker M. 2003. Environmental Status of the European Seas. ICES CIEM Report. 75 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Galil BS. 2003. A sea of stone—biodiversity and history. Biomare Newslett 3:7.Google Scholar
  53. Galil BS. 2004. Of fish bones and mosaics—the fisheries of the ancient Mediterranean. HMAP 1st Mediterranean Workshop. 20–22 Sept 2004. Institute of Marine Science, Barcelona. Spain.Google Scholar
  54. Gandolfini G, Mordenti A, Paganelli L. 1982. Composition and longshore dispersal of sands from the Po and Adige rivers since pre-Etruscan age. J Sediment Petrol 57:797–805.Google Scholar
  55. Gertwagen R, Raicevich S, Fortibuoni T, Giovanardi O. 2008. Il Mare Com’era. Chioggia: Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale. p 219.Google Scholar
  56. Guhl E, Koner W. 1875. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. London: Chapman and Hall. p 636.Google Scholar
  57. Guidetti P, Sala E. 2007. Community-wide effects of marine reserves in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 335:43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Haywood J. 1997. Atlas of world history. Abingdon: Andromeda Oxford. p 256.Google Scholar
  59. Hoffmann RC. 1996. Economic development and aquatic ecosystems in Medieval Europe. Am Hist Rev 101:631–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hoffmann RC. 2001. Frontier foods for late Medieval consumers: culture, economy, ecology. Environ Hist 7:131–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hofrichter R. 2002. Das mittelmeer: fauna, flora, oekologie. Teil I—Allgemeiner Teil. Heildelberg, Berlin: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. p 608.Google Scholar
  62. Hughes JD. 1994. Pan’s Travail. Environmental Problems of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. Baltimore: Hopkins University Press. p 277.Google Scholar
  63. ICCAT-SCRS. 2009. Mediterranean swordfish. In: International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), Standing Committee on Research and Statistics (SCRS), Madrid (Spain): Report for biennial period 2008-09, Part II Vol. 2, pp 174–180Google Scholar
  64. IMEDES 1999. The Castellón trawling project (1961–1966): teachings for a sustainable fisheries management. IMEDES, COPEMED and FAO special publication. 173 pp.Google Scholar
  65. IUCN. 2010. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Available at: www.iucn.org.
  66. Jackson JBC, Kirby MX, Berger WH, Bjorndal KA, Botsford LW, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke R, Erlandson J, Estes JA, Hughes TP, Kidwell S, Lange CB, Lenihan HS, Pandolfi JM, Peterson CH, Steneck RS, Tegner MJ, Warner RR. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Johnson WM, Karamanlidis AA, Dendrinos P, Fernández de Larrinoa P, Gazo M, González LM, Güçlüsoy H, Pires R, Schnellmann M. 2009. Monk seal fact sites: Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus). http://www.monachus-guardian.org/factfiles/medit01.htm.
  68. Jonsson L. 1992. Die Voegel Europas und des Mittelmeerraumes. Kosmos Naturfuehrer. Stuttgart: Franck-Kosmos. p 559.Google Scholar
  69. Justić D, Legovic T, Rottini-Sandrini L. 1987. Trends in oxygen content 1911–1984 and occurrence of benthic mortality in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 25:435–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Knauer ER. 2003. Fishing with cormorants: a note on Vittore Carpaccio’s hunting on the lagoon—Critical Essay. Apollo, September 2003.Google Scholar
  71. Koutsoubas D, Galinou-Mitsoudi S, Katsanevakis S, Leontarakis P, Metaxatos A, Zenetos A. 2007. Bivalve and gastropod molluscs of commercial interest for human consumption in the Hellenic Seas. In: Papaconstantinou C, Zenetos A, Tserpes G, Vassilopoulou V, Eds. State of the Hellenic Fisheries. Athens: HCMR Publications. p 70–84.Google Scholar
  72. Kovačević Z. 2002. History and political ecology of the Adriatic Sea. Religion, Science and the Environment: Adriatic Sea Symposium. 8 pp. http://www.rsesymposia.org/themedia/File/1151678043-Kovacevic.pdf.
  73. Krstulovic N, Solic M. 1990. Long-term study of heterotrophic bacteria as indicators of eutrophication of the open middle Adriatic Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 30:611–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kružić P, Požar-Domac A. 2007. Impact of tuna farming on the banks of the coral Cladocora caespitosa in the Adriatic Sea. Coral Reefs 26:665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lahmeyer J. 2006. Population statistics: Growth of the population per country in a historical perspective, including their administrative divisions and principal towns. http://www.populstat.info/.
  76. Libralato S, Raicevich S, Pranovi F, Giovanardi O. 2004. Fisheries and state of the ecosystem: what about the Adriatic Sea? HMAP 1st Mediterranean Workshop. 20–22 Sept 2004. Barcelona: Institute of Marine Science.Google Scholar
  77. Libralato S, Coll M, Tempesta M, Santojanni A, Spoto M, Palomera I, Arneri E, Solidoro C. 2010. Food-web traits of protected and exploited areas of the Adriatic Sea. Biol Conserv 143:2182–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lotze HK. 2005. Radical changes in the Wadden Sea fauna and flora over the last 2000 years. Helgoland Mar Res 59:71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lotze HK, Worm B. 2009. Historical baselines for large marine animals. Trends Ecol Evol 24:254–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lotze HK, Lenihan HS, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke RG, Kay MC, Kidwell SM, Kirby MX, Peterson CH, Jackson JBC. 2006. Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312:1806–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. MacKenzie BR, Mosegaard H, Rosenberg AA. 2009. Impending collapse of bluefin tuna in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. Conserv Lett 2:25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Malej A, Malej A Jr. 2004. Invasion of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca in the Northern Adriatic: a non-success story. In: Dumond H, Shiganova TA, Nierman U, Eds. Aquatic Invasions in the Black, Caspian and Mediterranean Seas. Kluwer: Academic Publishers. p 273–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marasović I, Ninčević Z, Kušpilić G, Marinović S, Marinov S. 2005. Long-term changes of basic biological and chemical parameters at two stations in the middle Adriatic. J Sea Res 54:3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Marchetti M. 2002. Environmental changes in the central Po Plain (northern Italy) due to fluvial modifications and anthropogenic activities. Geomorphology 44:361–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Marchetti R, Provini A, Crosa G. 1989. Nutrient load carried by the River Po into the Adriatic Sea, 1968–1987. Mar Pollut Bull 20:168–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Marini L. 1998. Cetaceans in the Italian Seas: a brief review. Aubert M, Riddel M, editors. Actes du Colloque. International “La Méditerranée, la mer et l’homme”. RIMMO, Cagnes-su-Mer et Antibes, 6–7 Novembre 1998, pp 88–90.Google Scholar
  87. Maschner HDG, Betts MW, Cornell J, Dunne JA, Finney B, Huntly N, Jordan JW, Misarti N, Reedy-Maschner KL, Russell R, Tews A, Wood S, Benson B. 2009. An introduction to the biocomplexity of Sanak Island, Western Gulf of Alaska. Pac Sci 63:673–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. McEvedy C, Jones R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. London: Penguin Books. p 368.Google Scholar
  89. McPherson J, Myers RA. 2009. How to infer population trends in sparse data: examples with opportunistic sighting records for great white sharks. Divers Distrib 15:880–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. MTSG. 2004. 2004 Global status assessment, Green turtle (Chelonia mydas). The IUCN Species Survival Commission, Red List Programme. Cambridge: IUCN. p 71.Google Scholar
  91. MTSG (Marine Turtle Specialist Group). 1999. A Global strategy for the conservation of marine turtles. The IUCN Species Survival Commission. Cambridge: IUCN.Google Scholar
  92. Munda IM. 2000. Long-term marine floristic changes around Rovinj (Istrian coast, North Adriatic) estimated on the basis of historical data from Paul Kuckuck’s field diaries from the end of the 19th century. Nova Hedwigia 71:1–36.Google Scholar
  93. Neil DT. 2002. A thousand years of human-coastal interactions in Venice: lessons from the serene republic. Coast Coast 2002:318–21.Google Scholar
  94. Newell RIE, Ott JA. 1999. Macrobenthic communities and eutrophication. In: Malone TC, Malej A, Harding LWG Jr, Smodlaka N, Turner RE, Eds. Ecosystems at the land-sea margin, drainage basin to coastal sea. Washington (DC): American Geophysical Union. p 265–94.Google Scholar
  95. Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara G, Agardy T, Hyrenbach D, Scovazzid T, Klaveren PV. 2008. The Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean marine mammals. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 18:367–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A. 2002. Susceptibility to invasion: assessing scale and impact of alien biota in the Northern Adriatic. CIESM Workshop Monogr 20:67–73.Google Scholar
  97. Ott JA. 1992. The Adriatic benthos: problems and perspectives. In: Colombo G, Ferrari I, Ceccherelli VU, Rossi R, Eds. Marine eutrophication and population dynamics. Fredensborg: Olsen and Olsen. p 367–78.Google Scholar
  98. Pandolfi JM, Bradbury RH, Sala E, Hughes TP, Bjorndal KA, Cooke RG, McArdle D, McClenachan L, Newman MJH, Paredes G, Warner RR, Jackson JBC. 2003. Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems. Science 301:955–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pauly D. 1995. Anecdotes and the shifting baseline syndrome of fisheries. Trends Ecol Evol 10:430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Perkol-Finkel S, Airoldi L. 2010. Loss and recovery potential of marine habitats: an experimental study of factors maintaining resilience in subtidal algal forests at the Adriatic Sea. PLoS ONE 5:e10791. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Perry SL, DeMaster DP, Silber GK. 1999. The great whales: history and status of six species listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973. Mar Fish Rev Sp Issue 61:1–74.Google Scholar
  102. Pinardi N, Arneri E, Crise A, Ravaioli M, Zavatarelli M. 2006. The physical, sedimentary and ecological structure and variability of shelf areas in the Mediterranean Sea. Robinson AR, Brink KH, editors. The Sea Vol. 14. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p1243-1330.Google Scholar
  103. Plinii Secundi C. 1513. Naturalis historiae. Libri XXXVII. Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  104. Pronzato R. 1999. Sponge-fishing, disease and farming in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 9:485–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pronzato R, Manconi R. 2008. Mediterranean commercial sponges: over 5000 years of natural history and cultural heritage. Mar Ecol 29:146–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Puškaric S, Berger GW, Jorissen FJ. 1990. Successive appearance of subfossil phytoplankton species in Holocene sediments of the Northern Adriatic and its relation to the increased eutrophication pressure. Estuar Coastal Shelf Sci 31:177–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Radcliffe W. 1921. Fishing from the earliest times. Chicago: Ares. p 478.Google Scholar
  108. Raicevich S, Libralato S, Giovanardi O, Pranovi F. 2004. Historical data of ecosystem driving forces and anthropogenic disturbance in the Northern Adriatic Sea. HMAP 1st Mediterranean Workshop. 20–22 Sept 2004. Institute of Marine Science, Barcelona. Spain.Google Scholar
  109. Ravier C, Fromentin J-M. 2004. Are the long-term fluctuations in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) population related to environmental changes? Fish Oceanogr 13:145–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rick TC, Erlandson JM. 2008. Human impacts on ancient marine ecosystems: a global perspective. Berkely: University of California Press. p 319.Google Scholar
  111. Roopnarine PD, Angielczyk KD, Wang SC, Hertog R. 2007. Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities. Proc R Soc B 274:2077–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sala E. 2004. The past and present topology and structure of Mediterranean subtidal rocky-shore food webs. Ecosystems 7:333–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sangiorgi F, Donders TH. 2004. Reconstructing 150 years of eutrophication in the north-western Adriatic Sea (Italy) using dinoflagellate cysts, pollen and spores. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 60:69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Santojanni A, Arneri E, Barry C, Belardinelli A, Cingolani N, Giannetti G, Kirkwood G. 2003. Trends of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) biomass in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sci Marina 67:327–40.Google Scholar
  115. Santojanni A, Cingolani N, Arneri E, Kirkwood G, Belardinelli A, Giannetti G, Colella S, Donato F, Barry C. 2005. Stock assessment of sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walb.) in the Adriatic Sea, with an estimate of discards. Scientia Marina 69:603–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sergeant D, Ronald K, Boulva J, Berkes F. 1979. The recent status of Monachus monachus the Mediterranean Monk Seal. In: Ronald K, Duguy R, Eds. The Mediterranean monk seal. Oxford: Pergamon Press. p 31–54.Google Scholar
  117. Stachowitsch M. 1984. Mass mortality in the Gulf of Trieste: the course of community destruction. Mar Ecol 5:243–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stachowitsch M. 1991. Anoxia in the Northern Adriatic Sea: rapid death, slow recovery. Geol Soc Lond Sp Publ 58:119–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stefani M, Vincenti S. 2005. The interplay of eustasy, climate and human activity in the late Quaternary depositional evolution and sedimentary architecture of the Po Delta system. Mar Geol 222–223:19–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stergiou KI, Koulouris ML. 2000. Fishing down the marine food webs in the Hellenic Seas. CIESM Workshop Monogr 12:73–8.Google Scholar
  121. Tout P. 1995. Birds of the Northern Adriatic Region. http://www.istrianet.org/istria/fauna/birds/birds-adriatic.htm.
  122. Trakadas LA. 2006. Exhausted by fishermen’s nets’: Roman sea fisheries and their management. J Mediterr Stud 16:259–72.Google Scholar
  123. Tudela S. 2004. Ecosystem effects of fishing in the Mediterranean: an analysis of the major threats of fishing gear and practices to biodiversity and marine habitats, General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean. Stud Rev 74:44.Google Scholar
  124. Turk R, Odorico R. 2009. Marine protected areas in the Northern Adriatic. Varstvo Narave 22:33–45.Google Scholar
  125. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2006. The cranes: status survey and conservation action plan Eurasian crane (Grus grus). U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/cranes/grusgrus.htm.
  126. Vollenweider RA, Montanari G, Rinaldi A. 1995. Statistical inferences about the mucilage events in the Adriatic Sea, with special reference to recurrence patterns and claimed relationship to sun activity cycles. Sci Total Environ 165:213–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Volpi LB. 1996. La spettacolare pesca del tonno nel golfo di Trieste. Trieste: Mladika.Google Scholar
  128. Vrgoc N, Arneri E, Jukic-Peladic S, Krstulovic Sifner S, Mannini P, Marceta B, Osmani K, Piccinetti C, Ungaro N. 2004. Review of current knowledge on shared demersal stocks of the Adriatic Sea. FAO-Adriamed Tech Doc 12:105p.Google Scholar
  129. Watermeyer KE, Shannon LJ, Griffiths CL. 2008. Changes in the trophic structure of the southern Benguela before and after the onset of industrial fishing. Afr J Mar Sci 30:351–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Whitehead H. 2002. Estimates of the current global population size and historical trajectory for sperm whales. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 242:295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Williams RJ, Martinez ND. 2000. Simple rules yield complex food webs. Nature 404:180–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Worm B, Hilborn R, Baum JK, Branch TA, Collie JS, Costello C, Fogarty MJ, Fulton EA, Hutchings JA, Jennings S, Jensen OP, Lotze HK, Mace PM, McClanahan TR, Minto C, Palumbi SR, Parma AM, Ricard D, Rosenberg AA, Watson R, Zeller D. 2009. Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325:578–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zavatarelli M, Raicich F, Bregant D, Russo A, Artegiani A. 1998. Climatological biogeochemical characteristics of the Adriatic Sea. J Mar Syst 18:227–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zenetos A, Gofas S, Russo G, Templado J. 2004. CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species in the Mediterranean 3: Molluscs. Monaco: CIESM.Google Scholar
  135. Ziderman I. 1990. Seashells and ancient purple dyeing. Biblical Archaeol 53:98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heike K. Lotze
    • 1
  • Marta Coll
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jennifer A. Dunne
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49BarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Santa Fe InstituteSanta FeUSA
  4. 4.Pacific Ecoinformatics and Computational Ecology LabBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations