, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 127–143 | Cite as

Typhoon Disturbance and Forest Dynamics: Lessons from a Northwest Pacific Subtropical Forest

  • Teng-Chiu Lin
  • Steven P. Hamburg
  • Kuo-Chuan Lin
  • Lih-Jih Wang
  • Chung-Te Chang
  • Yue-Joe Hsia
  • Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur
  • Cathy M. Mabry McMullen
  • Chiung-Pin Liu


Strong tropical storms are known to affect forest structure, composition, and nutrient cycles in both tropical and temperate regions, although our understanding of these effects disproportionally comes from regions experiencing much lower cyclone frequency than many forests in the Northwest Pacific. We summarized the effects of typhoons on forest dynamics at Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) in northeastern Taiwan, which averages 0.49 major typhoons annually, and compared their resistance and resilience to those of forests in other regions. Typhoons cause remarkably few tree falls at FEF; multiple typhoons in 1994 felled only 1.4% of canopy trees, demonstrating high structural resistance. The most important effect of typhoons in this ecosystem is defoliation, which maintains high understory light levels and enhances heterogeneity, sustaining diversity without large canopy gaps. The vulnerability of taller trees to being blown down has resulted in the short-stature FEF (mean canopy height is 10.2 m). As the FEF is P-limited and a large fraction of total annual P export occurs during typhoons, these storms may have the effect of reducing productivity over time. DIN and K+ export only remain elevated for days at FEF, in contrast to the several years observed in Puerto Rico. High resilience is also evident in the rapid recovery of leaf area following typhoons. Heavy defoliation and slow decomposition are among the processes responsible for the high resistance and resilience of FEF to typhoon disturbance. These key structural features may emerge in other forest ecosystems if the frequency of major storms increases with climate change.


typhoon gap litterfall defoliation streamwater chemistry regeneration understory light 



We dedicate this paper to Dr. Hen-Biau King for his vision of establishing long-term ecological research in Taiwan with Fushan as the first study site and his continuous support and inspiration on critical ecological studies. This study was supported in part by research Grants from National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC912621B018001, 912621B018002, 922621B018001, 932621B018001, 942313B018001, 952313B018001, 962313B018001). We thank Meng-Fen Lee for editing the figures, Fushan Research Center of Taiwan Forest Research Institute for logistical support, Dr. Emery Boose for comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. Thanks are also given to Hsueh-Ching Wang, Shih-Bin Ding, Horng-Ming Hsiao for the hard work in the field.


  1. Adams MB, Angradi TR. 1996. Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of hardwood leaf litter in the Fernow whole-watershed acidification experiment. For Ecol Manage 83:61–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JT, Spencer T. 1991. Carbon, nutrient and water balances of tropical rain forest ecosystems subject to disturbance: management implications and research prosals. MAB Digest 7. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  3. Anthes RA, Corell RW, Holland G, Hurrell JW, MacCracken MC, Trenberth KE. 2006. Hurricanes and global warming-potential linkages and consequences. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 87:623–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. APHA. 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18th edn. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. pp 4-108–15.Google Scholar
  5. Basnet K, Likens GE, Scatena FN, Lugo AE. 1992. Hurricane Hugo: damage to a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico. J Trop Ecol 8:47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batista WB, Platt WJ. 2003. Tree population responses to hurricane disturbance: syndromes in a south-eastern USA old-growth forest. J Ecol 91:197–212.Google Scholar
  7. Bellingham PJ. 1991. Landforms influence patterns of Hurricane damage: evidence from Jamaican Montane forests. Biotropica 23(4a):427–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellingham PJ, Kohyama T, Aiba S. 1996. The effects of a typhoon on Japanese warm temperate rainforests. Ecol Res 11:229–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellingham PJ, Kapos V, Varty N, Healey JR, Tanner EVJ, Kelly DL, Dalling JW, Burns LS, Lee D, Sidrak G. 2009. Hurricanes need not cause high mortality: the effect of Hurricane Gilbert on forests in Jamaica. J Trop Ecol 8:217–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bloomfield J, Vogt KA, Vogt DJ. 1993. Decay rate and substrate quality of fine roots and foliage of two tropical tree species in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Plant Soil 150:233–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boose ER, Foster DR, Fluet M. 1994. Hurricane impacts to tropical and temperate forest landscapes. Ecol Monogr 64:369–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bormann FH, Likens GE. 1967. Nutrient cycling. Science 155:424–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bormann FH, Likens GE. 1981. Pattern and processes in a forested ecosystem. New York: Springer-Verlag. p 253.Google Scholar
  14. Boucher DH, Vandermeer JH, Yih K, Zamora N. 1990. Contrasting hurricane damage in tropical rain forest and pine forest. Ecology 71:2022–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burslem DFRP, Whitmore TC, Brown GC. 2000. Short-term effects of cyclone impact and long-term recovery of tropical rain forest on Kolombangara, Solomon Islands. J Ecol 88(6):1063–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Canham CD, Denslow JS, Platt WJ, Runkle JR, Spies TA, White PS. 1990. Light regimes beneath closed canopies and tree-fall gaps in temperate and tropical forests. Can J For Res 20:620–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chambers JQ, Fisher JI, Zeng H, Chapman EL, Baker DB, Hurtt GC. 2007. Hurricane Katrina’s carbon footprint on U.S. Gulf Coast forests. Science 318:1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chang NH, Ma FC, Yu HM, Hsui YR. 1998. Dynamics of soil seed bank and seedlings in the Fushan broadleaf forest. Taiwan J For Sci 13:279–89.Google Scholar
  19. Chapman EL, Chambers JQ, Ribbeck KF, Baker DB, Tobler MA, Zeng H, White DA. 2008. Hurricane Katrina impacts on forest trees of Louisiana’s Pearl River basin. For Ecol Manage 256(5):883–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark DB, Clark DA, Rich PM, Weiss SB, Oberbauer SF. 1996. Landscape-scale evaluation of understory light and canopy structure: methods and application in a neotropical lowland rain forest. Can J For Res 26:747–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clein JS, Schimel JP. 1994. Reduction in microbial activity in birch litter due to drying and rewetting events. Soil Biol Biochem 26:403–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cook GD, Goyens CMAC. 2008. The impact of wind on trees in Australian tropical savannas: lessons from Cyclone Monica. Austral Ecol 33(4):462–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Curran TJ, Brown RL, Edwards E, Hopkins K, Kelley C, McCarthy E, Pounds E, Solan R, Wolf J. 2008. Plant functional traits explain interspecific differences in immediate cyclone damage to trees of an endangered rainforest community in north Queensland. Austral Ecol 33(4):451–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Gouvenain RC, Silander JA. 2003. Do tropical storm regimes influence the structure of tropical rain forests? Biotropica 35(2):166–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delta-T. 2000. HemiView canopy analysis software: user’s manual. Version 2.0. Cambridge: Delta-T Devices Ltd.Google Scholar
  26. Denslow JS. 1987. Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18:431–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dittus WPJ. 1985. The influence of cyclones on the dry evergreen forests of Sri Lanka. Biotropica 17(1):1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Edmonds RL. 1980. Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Douglas-fir, red alder, western hemlock, and Pacific silver fir ecosystems in western Washington. Can J For Res 10:327–37.Google Scholar
  29. Elsner JB, Kossin JP, Jagger TH. 2010. The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature 455:92–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Emanuel K. 2005. Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature 436:686–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Everham EMIII, Brokaw NVL. 1996. Forest damage and recovery from catastrophic wind. Bot Rev 62(2):113–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fernandez DS, Fetcher N. 1991. Changes in light availability following Hurricane Hugo in a subtropical montane forest in Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23:393–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Forsyth E. 2006. Patterns of typhoon damage in two subtropical forests. Sc.B. Thesis, Center for Environmental Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI.
  34. Foster DR. 1988. Species and stand response to catastrophic wind in central New England, U.S.A. J Ecol 76:135–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Foster DR, Boose ER. 1992. Patterns of forest damage resulting from catastrophic wind in central New England, U.S.A. J Ecol 80:79–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Foster DR, Aber JD, Melillo JM, Bowden RD, Bazzaz FA. 1997. Forest responses to disturbance and anthropogenic stress. BioScience 47(7):437–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fujita T, Itaya A, Miura M, Manabe T, Yamamoto SI. 2003. Long-term canopy dynamics analysed by aerial photographs in a temperate old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest. J Ecol 91:686–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gong WK, Ong JE. 1983. Litter production and decomposition in a coastal hill dipterocarp forest. In: Sutton SL, Whitmore TC, Chadwick AC, Eds. Tropical rain forest: ecology and management. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. p 275–85.Google Scholar
  39. Gresham CA, William TM, Lipscomb DJ. 1991. Hurricane Hugo wind damage to southeastern U.S. coastal forest tree species. Biotropica 23(4a):420–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grove S, Turton SM, Siegenthaler D. 2000. Mosaics of canopy openness induced by tropical cyclones in lowland rain forests with contrasting management histories in northeastern Australia. J Trop Ecol 16(6):883–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harcombe PA, Leipzig LEM, Elsik IS. 2009. Effects of hurricane Rita on three long-term forest study plots in east Texas, USA. Wetlands 29(1):88–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hardy CC, Bunnell DL, Menakis JP, Schmidt KM, Long DG, Simmerman DG, Johnston CM. 1999. Coarse-scale spatial data for wildland fire and fuel management. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, November 1999. Online at:
  43. Hilton RG, Glay A, Hovius N, Chen MC, Horng MJ, Chen H. 2008. Tropical-cyclone-driven erosion of the terrestrial biosphere from mountains. Nat Geos 1:759–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Holland GJ. 1993. Ready Reckoner-Chapter 9. In: Holland GJ, Ed. Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting. WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, Geneva (Switzerland): World Meteorological Organization.Google Scholar
  45. Horng FW, Chang WE. 1996. Soil nutrient pool and available nutrient dynamics in the Fushan mixed hardwood forest ecosystem. Taiwan J For Sci 11:465–73.Google Scholar
  46. Horng FW, Yu HM, Ma FC. 1994. Fertilization effect on the growth of a subtropical secondary hardwood forest in a low montane area in Taiwan. Taipei: National Science Council Report NSC82-0409-B-054-006.Google Scholar
  47. Horng FW, Yu HM, Ma FC. 1995. Typhoons of 1994 doubled the annual litterfall of Fu-Shan mixed hardwood forest ecosystem in northeastern Taiwan. Bull Taiwan For Res Inst New Ser 10:485–91.Google Scholar
  48. Hsia YJ. 2008. Fushan climate data: annual reports. Online:
  49. Hsia YJ, Hwong JL. 1999. Hydrological characteristics of Fu-shan Experimental Forest. Q J Chin For 32:39–51.Google Scholar
  50. Knutson TR, McBride JL, Chan J, Emanuel K, Holland G, Langsea C, Held I, Kossin JP, Srivastava AK, Sugi M. 2010. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nat Geos 3(3):157–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kupfer JA, Myers AT, McLane SE, Melton GN. 2008. Patterns of forest damage in a southern Mississippi landscape caused by Hurricane Katrina. Ecosystems 11:45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Larsen MC, Webb MT. 2009. Potential effects of runoff, fluvial sediment, and nutrient discharge on the coral reefs of Puerto Rico. J Coast Res 25(1):189–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee MF, Lin TC, Vadeboncoeur MA, Hwong JL. 2008. Changes in the vegetation cover in relation to the 1996 strong typhoon Herb at the Lienhuachi Experimental Forest in central Taiwan. For Ecol Manage 255:3297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Li YQ. 1992. Studies on the gap regeneration and forest dynamics of the broadleave forest at low latitude in fu-shan area. Sc.B. Thesis, Department of Forestry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  55. Liang JC, Wang MK, King HB. 1997. Sulfate sorption of Fushan Forest soils. J Chin Agric Chem Soc 36:42–56 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  56. LI-COR. 1992. LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer operating manual. Lincoln, NE: LI-COR Inc, 90 p.Google Scholar
  57. Lieberman M, Lieberman D, Peralta R. 1989. Forests are not just Swiss cheese: canopy stereogeometry of non-gaps in tropical forests. Ecology 70(3):550–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lin KC, Horng FW, Cheng WE, Chiang HC, Chang UC. 1996. Soil survey and classification of the Fushan Experiment Forest. Taiwan J For Sci 11(2):159–74.Google Scholar
  59. Lin TC, Hamburg SP, King HB, Hsia YJ. 1997. Spatial variability of throughfall in a subtropical rain forest in Taiwan. J Environ Qual 26:172–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lin TC, Lin TT, Chiang ZM, Hsia YJ, King HB. 1999. A study on typhoon disturbance to the canopy natural hardwood forest in northeastern Taiwan. Q J Chin For 32:67–78.Google Scholar
  61. Lin TC, Hamburg SP, King HB, Hsia YJ. 2000. Throughfall patterns in a subtropical rain forest of northeastern Taiwan. J Environ Qual 29:1186–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lin TC, Hamburg SP, Hsia YJ, King HB, Wang LJ, Lin KC. 2001. Base cation leaching from the canopy of a subtropical rainforest in northeastern Taiwan. Can J For Res 31:1156–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lin KC, Chang NH, Wang CP, Liu CP. 2002. Green foliage decomposition and its nitrogen dynamics of 4 tree species of the Fushan forest. Taiwan J For Sci 17:75–85 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  64. Lin KC, Hamburg SP, Tang SL, Hsia YJ, Lin TC. 2003a. Typhoon effects on litterfall in a subtropical forest. Can J For Res 33:2184–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lin TC, Hamburg SP, Hsia YJ, Lin TT, King HB, Wang LJ, Lin KC. 2003b. Influence of typhoon disturbances on the understory light regime and stand dynamics of a subtropical rain forest in northeastern Taiwan. J For Res 8:139–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lin TC, Lin KC, Hwong JL, Wang HC, Fu CH. 2010. Immediate effects of typhoon disturbance and artificial thinning on understory light environments in two subtropical forests in Taiwan. In: Azevedo JC, Feliciano M, Castro J, Pinto MA, Eds. Proceedings of “Forest landscape and global change—new frontiers in management, conservation and restoration”. Bragança, Portugal: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança. p 141–6.Google Scholar
  67. Lodge DJ, Scatena FN, Asbury CE, Sánchez MJ. 1991. Fine litterfall and related nutrient inputs resulting from Hurricane Hugo in subtropical wet and lower montane rain forests of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23(4a):336–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lugo AE. 2000. Effects and outcomes of Caribbean hurricanes in a climate change scenario. Sci Total Environ 262:243–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lugo AE. 2008. Visible and invisible effects of hurricanes on forest ecosystems: an international review. Austral Ecol 33:368–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lugo AE, Applefield M, Pool DJ, McDonald RB. 1983. The impact of hurricane David on the forests of Dominica. Can J For Res 13:201–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mabry CM, Hamburg SP, Lin TC, Horng FW, King HB, Hsia YJ. 1998. Typhoon disturbance and stand-level damage patterns at a subtropical forest in Taiwan. Biotropica 30:238–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McDowell WH. 2001. Hurricanes, people, and riparian zones: controls on nutrient losses from forested Caribbean watersheds. For Ecol Manage 154:443–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Merrens EJ, Peart DR. 1992. Effects of hurricane damage on individual growth and stand structure in a hardwood forest in New Hampshire, USA. J Ecol 80:787–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Middleton BA, Smith GJ. 2009. Foreword: hurricanes and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Wetlands 29(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Murphy HT, Metcalfe DJ, Bradford MG, Ford AF, Galway KE, Sydes TA, Westcott DJ. 2008. Recruitment dynamics of invasive species in rainforest habitats following Cyclone Larry. Austral Ecol 33(4):495–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Naka K. 1982. Community dynamics of evergreen broadleaf forests in southwestern Japan. I. Wind damaged trees and canopy gaps in evergreen oak forest. Bot Mag Tokyo 95:385–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Neumann CJ. 1993. Global overview—Chapter 1. In: Holland GJ, Ed. Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting, WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31. Geneva (Switzerland): World Meteorological Organization.Google Scholar
  78. NWS. 2009. Tropical cyclone definitions. National Weather Service Instruction 10-604, National Weather Service, NOAA.Google Scholar
  79. Ostertag R, Scatena FN, Silver WL. 2003. Forest floor decomposition following hurricane litter inputs in several Puerto Rican forests. Ecosystems 6:261–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pielke R Jr, Landsea C, Mayfield M, Laver J, Pasch R. 2005. Reply to “hurricanes and global warming—potential linkages and consequences”. Bull Am Meterol Soc 87:628–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rebertus AJ, Kitzberger T, Veblen TT, Roovers LM. 1997. Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology 78:678–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reilly AE. 1991. The effects of Hurricane Hugo in three tropical forests in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Biotropica 23(4a):414–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rich PM. 1990. Characterizing plant canopies with hemispherical photographs. Remote Sens Rev 5:13–29.Google Scholar
  84. Rich PM, Clark DB, Clark DA, Oberbauer SF. 1993. Long-term study of solar radiation regimes in a tropical wet forest using quantum sensor and hemispherical photography. Agric For Meteorol 65:107–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Runkle JR. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forests of eastern North America. Ecology 63:1533–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sandhu J, Sinha M, Ambasht RS. 1990. Nitrogen release from decomposing litter of Leucaena leucocephala in the dry tropics. Soil Biol Biochem 22(6):859–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sauer JD. 1962. Effects of recent tropical cyclones on the coastal vegetation of Mauritius. J Trop Ecol 50:275–90.Google Scholar
  88. Scatena FN, Estrada SM, Chinea JD. 1996. The first five year in the reorganization of aboveground biomass and nutrient use following Hurricane Hugo in the Bisley Experimental Watersheds, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 28(4a):424–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schaefer DA, McDowell WH, Scatena FN, Asbury CE. 2000. Effects of hurricane disturbance on stream water concentrations and fluxes in eight tropical forest watersheds of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. J Trop Ecol 16:189–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Simpson RH, Riehl H. 1981. The hurricane and its impact. Baton Rouge (Louisiana): Louisiana State University Press. 398 p.Google Scholar
  91. Smith AP, Hogan KP, Idol JR. 1992. Spatial and temporal patterns of light and canopy structure in a lowland tropical moist forest. Biotropica 24(4):503–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Songwe NC, Okali DUU, Fasehun FE. 1995. Litter decomposition and nutrient release in a tropical rainforest, Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve, Cameroon. J Trop Ecol 11:333–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sousa WP. 1984. The role of disturbance in natural communities. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 15:353–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Suzuki E, Tsukahara J. 1987. Age structure and regeneration of old growth Cryptomeria japonica forest on Yakushima Island. Bot Mag Tokyo 100:233–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. TFRI. 1989. A list of native plants of Fushan Experimental Forest. Taipei: Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. 31 p.Google Scholar
  96. Tsai CJ, Lin TC, Howng JL, Lin NH, Wang CP, Hamburg SP. 2009. Typhoon impacts on stream water chemistry in a plantation and an adjacent natural forest in central Taiwan. J Hydrol 378(3–4):290–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Turton SM. (Ed). 2008. Cyclones Larry and Monica: ecological effects of two major disturbance events [Special issue]. Austral Ecol 33(4):365–7.Google Scholar
  98. Van Bloem SJ, Murphy PG, Lugo AE. 2007. A link between hurricane-induced tree sprouting, high stem density and short canopy in tropical dry forest. Tree Physiol 27:475–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Vandermeer J, Boucher D, de la Cerda IG. 1996. A theory of disturbance and species diversity: evidence from Nicaragua after hurricane Joan. Biotropica 28:600–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vandermeer J, de la Cerda IG, Boucher D, Perfecto I, Ruiz J. 2000. Hurricane disturbance and tropical tree species diversity. Science 290:788–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vitousek PM, Gosz JR, Grier CC, Melillo JM, Reiners WA, Todd RL. 1979. Nitrate losses from disturbed ecosystems. Science 204:469–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vogt KA, Vogt DJ, Boon P, Covich A, Scatena FN, Asbjornsen H, O’Harra JL, Perez J, Siccama TG, Bloomfield J, Ranciato JF. 1996. Litter dynamics along stream, riparian and upslope areas following Hurricane Hugo, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 28(4a):458–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Waide JB. 1988. Forest ecosystem stability: revision of the resistance-resilience model in relation to observation macroscopic properties of ecosystems. Forest Hydrology and Ecology at Coweeta. Ecol Stud 66:383–405.Google Scholar
  104. Walker LR. 1991. Tree damage and recovery from Hurricane Hugo in Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23(4a):379–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Walker LR, Lodge DJ, Brokaw NVL, Waide RB. 1991. An introduction to Hurricanes in the Caribbean. Biotropica 23(4a):313–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wang F, Xu YJ. 2009. Hurricane Katrina-induced forest damage in relation to ecological factors at landscape scale. Environ Monit Assess 156(1–4):491–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wang LJ, King HB, Hsia YJ, Hwong JL, Liou CP, Lin TC. 1996. Storm solute changes in the Fushan forested watershed, NE Taiwan. J Chin Water Soil Conserv 27(2):97–105.Google Scholar
  108. Wang LJ, King HB, Hsia YJ, Harrison RB, Lin TC, Hwong LJ, Liou CB. 1997. Changes in chemistry in hydrological processes of the Fushan Experimental Forest. Q J Chin For 30(2):203–15.Google Scholar
  109. Wang LJ, Teng TC, Hsia YJ, King HB, Liu CP. 1998. Changes in streamwater chemistry of Fushan Experimental Forest during 1996 typhoon Gloria event. Q J Exp For NTU 12(3):189–201.Google Scholar
  110. Wang LJ, Teng TC, Hsia YJ, King HB, Liu CP, Lin TC. 1999. Changsin streamwater chemistry of Fushan Experimental Forest during 1996 typhoon Herb event. Q J Chin For 32(2):217–32.Google Scholar
  111. Wang HH, Pan FJ, Liu CK, Yu YH, Hung SF. 2000. Vegetation classification and ordination of a permanent plot in the Fushan Experimental Forest, northern Taiwan. Taiwan J For Sci 15(3):411–28 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  112. Wang LJ, Wu CC, Hsia YJ, King HB. 2001. Phosphorus dynamics and output in the Fushan stream, NE Taiwan. Q J Chin For 34(1):31–47.Google Scholar
  113. Webb LJ. 1958. Cyclones as an ecological factor in tropical lowland rainforest, north Queensland. Aust J Bot 6:220–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Webster PJ, Holland GJ, Chang HR. 2005. Hurricanes and global warming—potential linkages and consequences. Science 309:1844–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Welles JM. 1990. Some indirect methods of estimating canopy structure. Remote Sens Rev 5:31–43.Google Scholar
  116. Whigham DF, Olmsted I, Cano EC, Harmon ME. 1991. The impact of Hurricane Gilbert on trees, litterfall and woody debris in a dry tropical forest in the Northeastern Yucatan Peninsula. Biotropica 23(4a):434–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Whitmore TC. 1989. Canopy gaps and the two major groups of forest trees. Ecology 70:536–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Woo MK, Huang L, Zhang S, Li Y. 1997. Rainfall in Guangdong province, South China. Catena 29:115–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Xu X, Hirata E, shibata H. 2004. Effect of typhoon disturbance on fine litterfall and related nutrient input in a subtropical forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. Basic Appl Ecol 5(3):271–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yamamoto S. 1992. Gap characteristics and gap regeneration in primary evergreen broad-leaved forests of western Japan. Bot Mag Tokyo 105:29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yamamoto S, Tsutsumi T. 1985. The population dynamics of naturally regenerated hinoki seedlings in artifical hinoki stands. V. The development and survivorship of seedlings on the various kinds of forest floors. J Jpn For Soc 67:427–33.Google Scholar
  122. Yamashita A, Sano J, Yamamoto S. 2002. Impact of a strong typhoon on the structure and dynamics of an old-growth beech (Fagus crenata) forest, southeastern Japan. Folia Geobot 37:5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zimmerman JK, Everham EM III, Waide RB, Lodge DJ, Taylor CM, Brokaw VL. 1994. Responses of tree species to hurricane winds in subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico: implications for tropical tree life histories. J Ecol 82:911–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teng-Chiu Lin
    • 1
  • Steven P. Hamburg
    • 2
  • Kuo-Chuan Lin
    • 3
  • Lih-Jih Wang
    • 4
  • Chung-Te Chang
    • 1
  • Yue-Joe Hsia
    • 5
  • Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur
    • 6
  • Cathy M. Mabry McMullen
    • 7
  • Chiung-Pin Liu
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Life ScienceNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Environmental Defense FundNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Taiwan Forestry Research InstituteTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  4. 4.School of Forestry and Resource ConservationNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  5. 5.Institute of Natural ResourceNational Donghwa UniversityHualienTaiwan, ROC
  6. 6.Complex Systems Research CenterUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  7. 7.Department of Natural Resource Ecology & ManagementIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  8. 8.Department of ForestryNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations