Ecosystems

, 12:807 | Cite as

Hydrology-Driven Regime Shifts in a Shallow Tropical Lake

  • Simoni Maria Loverde-Oliveira
  • Vera Lúcia Moraes Huszar
  • Nestor Mazzeo
  • Marten Scheffer
Article

Abstract

Shifts between alternative stable states have become a focus of research in temperate shallow lakes. Here we show that sharp transitions between a clear, macrophyte-dominated state and a turbid state without submerged plants can also occur in tropical floodplain lakes, albeit driven by a largely different set of mechanisms. We show how a shallow lake in the Pantanal becomes covered by an exploding population of the submerged macrophyte Egeria najas Planchon as the water level rises during the annual high-water period. Water clarity increases spectacularly in this period due to flushing with river water that has lost most of its suspended matter during its slow flow over the flooded vegetated plains. A few months later when the water level drops again, the submerged plant beds die and decompose rapidly, triggering a phase of increasing turbidity. During this period an increase in dissolved organic matter, suspended matter, and phytoplankton biomass results in a sharp deterioration in water clarity. The concomitant water level decrease largely counteracts the effects on the underwater light climate, so that the amount of light at the bottom may not differ in comparison with the high-water period. Therefore, changes in light climate seem unlikely to be the sole driver of the vegetation shifts, and other mechanisms may prevent recovery of the submerged vegetation until the next high-water episode. Also, contrary to what is found in temperate lakes, there is no evidence for top-down control of phytoplankton biomass associated with the macrophyte-dominated state in our tropical lake.

Keywords

alternative states shallow lake Egeria najas phytoplankton macrophytes pantanal freshwater wetlands 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Valdeci Antonio de Oliveira for help with the field collections, and Ibraim Fantin Cruz for help with the work involving the zooplankton community. We also thank FAPEMAT, NEPA/UFMT (Brazil), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq (Brazil), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES (Brazil), CSIC-UDELAR (Uruguay), and PEDECIBA (Uruguay), SNI-ANII for financial support. We also thank Patricia Mburucuyá and Juancito Carrau for their inspirational comments and suggestions; and finally Dr. Janet W. Reid (JWR Associates) for the revision of the English text.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simoni Maria Loverde-Oliveira
    • 1
  • Vera Lúcia Moraes Huszar
    • 2
  • Nestor Mazzeo
    • 3
  • Marten Scheffer
    • 4
  1. 1.Depto. Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal do Mato GrossoRondonópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Museu NacionalUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Depto. de Ecología, Laboratorio de Ecología y Rehabilitación de Ecosistemas AcuáticosUniversidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  4. 4.Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality ManagementAgricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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