, Volume 8, Issue 8, pp 941–944 | Cite as

Surrogates for Resilience of Social–Ecological Systems

  • Stephen R. Carpenter
  • Frances Westley
  • Monica G. Turner
Special Feature


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen R. Carpenter
    • 1
  • Frances Westley
    • 2
  • Monica G. Turner
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for LimnologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental StudiesUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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