Ecosystems

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 412–429 | Cite as

Production of CO2 in Soil Profiles of a California Annual Grassland

  • Noah Fierer
  • Oliver A. Chadwick
  • Susan E. Trumbore
Original Articles

Abstract

Soils play a key role in the global cycling of carbon (C), storing organic C, and releasing CO2 to the atmosphere. Although a large number of studies have focused on the CO2 flux at the soil–air interface, relatively few studies have examined the rates of CO2 production in individual layers of a soil profile. Deeper soil horizons often have high concentrations of CO2 in the soil air, but the sources of this CO2 and the spatiotemporal dynamics of CO2 production throughout the soil profile are poorly understood. We studied CO2 dynamics in six soil profiles arrayed across a grassland hillslope in coastal southern California. Gas probes were installed in each profile and gas samples were collected weekly or biweekly over a three-year period. Using soil air CO2 concentration data and a model based on Fick’s law of diffusion, we modeled the rates of CO2 production with soil profile depth. The CO2 diffusion constants were checked for accuracy using measured soil air 222Rn activities. The modeled net CO2 production rates were compared with CO2 fluxes measured at the soil surface. In general, the modeled and measured net CO2 fluxes were very similar although the model consistently underestimated CO2 production rates in the surficial soil horizons when the soils were moist. Profile CO2 production rates were strongly affected by the inter- and intra-annual variability in rainfall; rates were generally 2–10 times higher in the wet season (December to May) than in the dry season (June to November). The El Niño event of 1997–1998, which brought above-average levels of rainfall to the study site, significantly increased CO2 production in both the surface and subsurface soil horizons. Whole profile CO2 production rates were approximately three times higher during the El Niño year than in the following years of near-average rainfall. During the dry season, when the net rates of CO2 flux from the soil profiles are relatively low (4–11 mg C– CO2 m−2 h−1), 20%–50% of the CO2 diffusing out of the profiles appears to originate in the relatively moist soil subsurface (defined here as those horizons below 40 cm in depth). The natural abundance 14C signatures of the CO2 and soil organic C suggest that the subsurface CO2 is derived from the microbial mineralization of recent organic C, possibly dissolved organic C transported to the subsurface horizons during the wet season.

Keywords

soil carbon soil respiration CO2 flux 14belowground processes vadose zone processes 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noah Fierer
    • 1
  • Oliver A. Chadwick
    • 2
  • Susan E. Trumbore
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  3. 3.Department of Earth System ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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