, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 503–523 | Cite as

Effects of Exotic Plant Invasions on Soil Nutrient Cycling Processes

  • Joan G. Ehrenfeld


Although it is generally acknowledged that invasions by exotic plant species represent a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem stability, little attention has been paid to the potential impacts of these invasions on nutrient cycling processes in the soil. The literature on plant–soil interactions strongly suggests that the introduction of a new plant species, such as an invasive exotic, has the potential to change many components of the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), water, and other cycles of an ecosystem. I have reviewed studies that compare pool sizes and flux rates of the major nutrient cycles in invaded and noninvaded systems for invasions of 56 species. The available data suggest that invasive plant species frequently increase biomass and net primary production, increase N availability, alter N fixation rates, and produce litter with higher decomposition rates than co-occurring natives. However, the opposite patterns also occur, and patterns of difference between exotics and native species show no trends in some other components of nutrient cycles (for example, the size of soil pools of C and N). In some cases, a given species has different effects at different sites, suggesting that the composition of the invaded community and/or environmental factors such as soil type may determine the direction and magnitude of ecosystem-level impacts. Exotic plants alter soil nutrient dynamics by differing from native species in biomass and productivity, tissue chemistry, plant morphology, and phenology. Future research is needed to (a) experimentally test the patterns suggested by this data set; (b) examine fluxes and pools for which few data are available, including whole-site budgets; and (c) determine the magnitude of the difference in plant characteristics and in plant dominance within a community that is needed to alter ecosystem processes. Such research should be an integral component of the evaluation of the impacts of invasive species.


exotic species invasion ecology ecosystem process carbon nitrogen water soil soil organic matter net primary productivity nutrients litter 



Support from US Department of Agriculture NRICGP grant 95-37101-1701 is gratefully acknowledged. I thank my students (H. Cutway, R. Hamilton, M. Palmer, B. Ravit, K. Ross, E. Stander) and Drs. J.-C. Clement, K. Goodell, and D. Ehrenfeld for helpful comments on an earlier draft. The comments of Dr. Ann Kinzig and two anonymous reviewers greatly improved the manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Agren, GI, Knecht, M 2001Simulation of soil carbon and nutrient development under Pinus sylvestris and Pinus contorta. For Ecol Manage14111729(1, R)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aguiar, MR, Paruelo, JM, Sala, OE, Laurenroth, WK 1996Ecosystem responses to changes in plant functional type composition: an example from the Patagonian steppe.J Veg Sci738190Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, MG 1995Interactions between Lythrum salicaria and native organisms: a critical review.Environ Manage1922531Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asner, GP, Beatty, SW 1996Effects of an African grass invasion on Hawaiian shrubland nitrogen biogeochemistry.Plant Soil18620511(2, O)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bart, D, Hartman, JG 2000Environmental determinants of Phragmites australis expansion in a New Jersey salt marsh.Oikos895969(3, EM)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baruch, Z, Goldstein, G 1999Leaf construction cost, nutrient concentration, and net CO2 assimilation of native and invasive species in Hawaii.Oecologia122118392(4, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belnap, J, Phillips, S 2001Soil biota in an ungrazed grassland: response to annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion.Ecol Applic11126175(5, O)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berendse, F 1998Effects of dominant plant species on soils during succession in nutrient-poor ecosystems.Biogeochemistry427388Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bever, JD, Westove’, RKM, Antonovics, J 1997Incorporating the soil community into plant population dynamics: the utility of the feedback approach.J Ecol8556173Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhatt, YD, Rawat, YS, Singh, SP 1994Changes in ecosystem functioning after replacement of forest by Lantana shrubland in Kumaun Himalaya.J Veg Sci56770(6, O)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blank, RR, Young, JA 1997Lepidium latifolium: influences on soil properties, rate of spread and competitive stature.Brock, JHWade, MPysek, PGreen, DBrock, JHWade, MPysek, PGreen, DS eds. Plant invasions: studies from North America and Europe.BackhuysAmsterdam6980(7, O)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boettcher, SE, Kalisz, PJ 1989Single-tree influence on soil properties in the mountains of eastern Kentucky.Ecology71136572Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bolton, H, Smith, JL, Wildung, RE 1990Nitrogen mineralization potentials of shrub-steppe soils with different disturbance histories.Soil Sci Soc Am J5488791(8, O)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bolton, H, Smith, JL, Link, SO 1993Soil microbial biomass and activity of a disturbed and undisturbed shrub–steppe ecosystem.Soil Sci Soc Am J5488791(9, O)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boon, PI, Johnstone, L 1997Organic matter decay in coastal wetlands: an inhibitory role for essential oil from Melaleuca alternifolia leaves?Arch Hydrobiol13843849Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borga, P, Nilsson, M, Tunlid, A 1994Bacterial communities in peat in relation to botanical composition as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis.Soil Biol Biochem268418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boswell, CC, Espie, PR 1998Uptake of moisture and nutrients by Hieraceium pilosella and effects on soil in a dry sub-humid grassland.N Z J Agric Res4125161(10, O)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burke, D, Weis, J, Weis, P 2000Release of metals by the leaves of the salt marsh grasses Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis.Est Coast Shelf Sci511539(11, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Callaway, RM, Aschehoug, ET 2000Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion.Science2905213(12, EP)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cameron, GN, Spencer, SR 1989Rapid leaf decay and nutrient release in a Chinese tallow forest.Oecologia802228(13, O)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chambers, RM 1997Porewater chemistry associated with Phragmites and Spartina in a Connecticut tidal marsh.Wetlands173607(14, O)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chapin FS III, and others. 2000. Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405:234–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chapin, FSI, Reynolds, H, D’Antonio, CM, Eckhart, V 1996The functional role of species in terrestrial ecosystems.Walker, BSteffan, W eds. Global change in terrestrial ecosystems.Cambridge University PressCambridge, (UK)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Christian, JM, Wilson, SD 1999Long-term ecosystem impacts of an introduced grass in the northern Great Plains.Ecology802397407(15, O)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cline, JF, Uresk, DW, Rickard, WH 1977Comparison of soil water used by a sagebrush–bunchgrass and a cheatgrass community.J Range Manage30199201(16, O)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Coleman, DC, Hendrix, P 2000Invertebrates as webmasters in ecosystems.CABI PublicationsWallingford, (UK)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cox, GW 1999Alien species in North American and Hawaii.Island PressWashington (DC)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D’Antonio, CM 1993Mechanisms controlling invasion of coastal plant communities by the alien succulent Carpobrotus edulis.Ecology748395(17, EM)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D’Antonio, CM, Dudley, TL, Mack, MC 1999Disturbance and biological invasions: direct effects and feedbacks.Walker, LR eds. Ecosystems of disturbed ground.ElsevierAmsterdam41352Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D’Antonio, CM, Mahall, BE 1991Root profiles and competition between the invasive, exotic perennial, Carpobrotus edulis, and two native shrub species in California coastal scrub.Am J Bot7888594(18, O)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davis, MA, Grime, JP, Thompson, K 2000Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility.J Ecol8852534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Diaz, S, Cabido, M 2001Vive la difference: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes.Trends Ecol Evol1664655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dudley, TL 2000Arundo donax.Bossard, CRandall, JHoshovsky, MC eds. Invasive plants of California’s wildlands.University of California PressBerkeley, (CA)(19, R)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dudley TL, and others. 2001. Saltcedar invasion in western riparian areas: impacts and new prospects for control. In: Transactions of the 65th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, Chicago, IL, USA. (20, R)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Durand, LZ, Goldstein, G 2001Photosynthesis, photoinhibition and nitrogen use efficiency in native and invasive tree ferns in Hawai.Oecologia12634554(21, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ehrenfeld, JG 2001Plant–soil interactions.Levin, S eds. Encyclopedia of biodiversity.Academic PressSan Diego (CA)689709Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ehrenfeld, JG, Kourtev, P, Huang, W 2001Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests.Ecol Applic111287300(22, O, EP)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ehrenfeld, JG, Scott, N 2001Invasive species and the soil: effects on organisms and ecosystem processes.Ecol Applic11125960Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Emery, SL, Perry, JA 1995Aboveground biomass and phosphorus concentrations of Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) and Typha spp. (cattail) in 12 Minnesota wetlands.Am Midl Nat1343949(23, O)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Emery, SL, Perry, JA 1996Decomposition rates and phosphorus concentrations of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and cattail (Typha spp.) in fourteen Minnesota wetlands.Hydrobiologia32312938(24, O)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Evans, RD, Rimer, R, Sperry, L, Belnap, J 2001Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland.Ecol Applic11130110(25, O)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Famsworth, EJ, Ellis, DR 2001Is purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) an invasive threat to freshwater wetlands? Conflicting evidence from several ecological metrics.Wetlands21199209(26, R)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Feller, MC 1983Effects of an exotic conifer (Pinus radiata) plantation on forest nutrient cycling in southeastern AustraliaFor Ecol Manage777102(27, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Finzi, AC, van Breemen, N, Canham, CD 1998Canopy tree–soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on pH and cations.Ecol Applic844754Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Garland, J 1996Patterns of potential C source utilization by rhizosphere communities.Soil Biol Biochem282330Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gill, RA, Burke, IC 1999Ecosystem consequences of plant life form changes at three sites in the semiarid United States.Oecologia12155163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gordon, DR 1998Effects of invasive, non-indigenous plant species on ecosystem processes: lessons from Florida.Ecol Applic8497589(28, R)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gordon, DR, Rice, KJ 1993Competitive effects of grassland annuals on soil water and blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedlings.Ecology746882(29, EP)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Grayston, SJ, Campbell, CD 1998Functional biodiversity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of hybrid larch (Larix eurolepis) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).Tree Physiol1610318Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Grayston, SJ, Wang, S, Campbell, CD, Edwards, AC 1996Selective influence of plant species on microbial diversity in the rhizosphere.Soil Biol Biochem3036978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gremmen, NJM, Chown, SL, Marshall, DJ 1998Impact of the introduced grass Agrostis stolonifera on vegetation and soil fauna communities at Marion Island, sub-Antarctic.Biol Conervs8522331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grierson, PF, Adams, MA 2000Plant species affect acid phosphatase, ergosterol and microbial P in a Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm.) forest in southwestern Australia.Soil Biol Biochem32181727Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Grime, JP 1998Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects.J Ecol8690210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grout, JA, Levins, CD, Richardson, JS 1997Decomposition rates of purple loosestrife (Lythum salicaria) and Lyngbei’s sedge (Carex lyngbyei) in the Fraser River estuary.Estuaries2096102(30, O)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hager, HA, McCoy, KD 1998The implications of accepting untested hypotheses: a review of the effects of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America.Biodiv Conserv7106979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Harcombe, P, Cameron, GN, Glumac, EG 1993Above-ground net primary productivity in adjacent grassland and woodland on the coastal prairie of Texas, USA.J Veg Sci452130(31, O)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harper, KT, Van Buren, R, Kitchen, SG 1996Invasion of alien annuals and ecological consequences in salt desert shrublands of western Utah.Barrow, JRMcArthur, EDSosebee, RETausch, RJ eds. Proceedings: Shrubland ecosystem dynamics in a changing environment. Forestry Service General Technical Report INT-GTR-338.US Dept AgricWashington (DC)5865(32, O)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hartemink, AE, O’Sullivan, JN 2001Leaf litter decomposition of Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea.Plant Soil23011524(33, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hector A, and others. 1999. Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science 286:1123–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hickey, B, Osborne, B 1998Effect of Gunnera tinctoria (Molina) Mirbel on seminatural grassland habitats in the west of Ireland.Starfinger, UEdwards, KKowarik, IWilliamson, M eds. Plant invasions: ecological mechanisms and human responses.BackhuysLeiden, (The Netherlands)195208(34, O)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hodge, A, Robinson, D, Fitter, A 2000Are microorganisms more effective than plants at competing for nitrogen?Trends Plant Sci53048CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Holmes, TH, Rice, K.J 1996Patterns of growth and soil–water utilization in some exotic annuals and native perennial bunchgrasses of California.Ann Bot7823343(35, EP)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hooper, DU, Vitousek, PM 1998Effects of plant composition and diversity on nutrient cycling.Ecol Monogr6812149Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Huenneke, LF, Hamburg, SP, Koide, R, Mooney, HA, Vitousek, PM 1990Effects of soil resources on plant invasions and community structure in California serpentine grassland.Ecology7147891Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Huston, MA 1994Biological diversity: the coexistence of species on changing landscapes.Cambridge University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kelly, EF, Chadwick, OA, Hilinski, TE 1998The effect of plants on mineral weathering.Biogeochemistry4213943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kolar, CS, Lodge, DM 2001Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders.Trends Ecol Evol16199204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kourtev, P, Ehrenfeld, JG, Huang, W 1998Effects of exotic plant species on soil properties in hardwood forests of New Jersey.Water Air Soil Pollut105493501(36, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kourtev, P, Ehrenfeld, JG, Huang, W 1999Differences in earthworm densities and nitrogen dynamics under exotic and native plant species.Biol Inv123745(37, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kourtev, P, Ehrenfeld, JG, Huang, W 2002aEnzyme activities during litter decomposition of two exotic and two native plant species in hardwood forests of New Jersey.Soil Biol Biochem34120718Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kourtev PS, Ehrenfeld JG, Haggblom M. Experimental analysis of the effect of exotic and native plant species on the structure and function of soil microbial communities. Soil Biol Biochem. Forthcoming b. (38, EP)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kourtev, PS, Ehrenfeld, JG, Huang, W 2002cExotic plant species alter microbial structure and function in the soil.Ecology85315266Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Levine, JM, D’Antonio, CM 1999Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invasibility.Oikos871526Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ley, RE, D’Antonio, CM 1998Exotic grass invasion alters potential rates of N fixation in Hawaiian woodlands.Oecologia11317987(40, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Londsdale, WM 1999Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility.Ecology80152236Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lonsdale, WM, Miller, IL, Forno, IW 1989The biology of Australian weeds. 20. Mimosa pingra L.Plant Prot Q411931(41, R)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mack, MC, D’Antonio, CM 1998Impacts of biological invasions on disturbance regimes.Trends Ecol Evol131958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mack, MC, D’Antonio, CM, Ley, RE 2001Alteration of ecosystem nitrogen dynamics by exotic plants: a case study of C4 grasses in Hawaii.Ecol Applic11132335(42, EM)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mack RN, and others. 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Applic 10:689–711.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Maron, JL, Jefferies, RL 1999Bush lupine mortality, altered resource availability, and alternative vegetation states.Ecology8044354Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    McCarron, JK, Knapp, AK 2001C3 woody plant expansion in a C4 grassland: are grasses and shrubs functionally distinct?Am J Bot88181823Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    McIntosh, PD, Loeseke, J, Bechler, K 1995Soil changes under mouse-ear hawkweed (Hieracium pilosella).N Z J Ecol192934(43, O)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    McLendon, T, Redente, EF 1992Effects of nitrogen limitation on species replacement dynamics during early secondary succession on a semiarid sagebrush site.Oecologia9131217Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Meyerson, LA, Saltonstall, K, Windham, L, Kiviat, E, Findlay, S 2000A comparison of Phragmites australis in freshwater and brackish marsh environments in North America.Wetl Ecol Manage989103(44, R)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mitchell, RJ, Marrs, RH, Le Duc, MG, Auld, MHD 1997A study of succession on lowland heaths in Dorset, southern England: changes in vegetation and soil chemical properties.J Appl Ecol34142644(45, O)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mueller-Dombois, D 1973A non-adapted vegetation interferes with water removal in a tropical rain forest area in Hawaii.Trop Ecol14118(46, O)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nagel, JM, Griffin, KL 2001Construction cost and invasive potential: comparing Lytrhum salicaria (Lythraceae) with co-occurring native species along pond banks.Am J Bot8822528(47, O)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Otto, S, Groffman, PM, Findlay, SEG, Arreola, AE 1999Invasive plant species and microbial processes in a tidal freshwater marsh.J Environ Qual2812527(48, O)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pattison, RR, Goldstein, G, Ares, A 1999Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of invasive and native Hawaiian rainforest species.Oecologia11744959(49, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Petraitis, PS, Latham, RE 1999The importance of scale in testing the origins of alternative community states.Ecology8042942Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Radford, IJ, Cousens, RD 2000Invasiveness and comparative life-history traits of exotic and indigenous Senecio species in Australia.Oecologia12553142(50, O, EP)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ravit, E, Ehrenfeld, JG, Haggblom, M 2003A comparison of sediment microbial communities associated with Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in brackish wetlands of New Jersey.Estuaries2646675Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Richardson, DM 2000Plant invasions- the role of mutualisms.Biol Rev756593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rodhe, H 1992Modeling biogeochemical cycles.Butcher, SSCarlson, RJOrians, GHWolf, GV eds. Global biogeochemical cycles.Academic PressSan Diego (CA)5572Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rutherford, MC, Pressinger, FM, Musil, CF 1986Standing crops, growth rates and resource use efficiency in alien plant invaded ecosystems.Macdonald, IAWKruger, FJFerrar, AA eds. The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa.Oxford University. Press.Cape Town18998(51, R)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Saggar, S, McIntosh, PD, Hedley, CB, Knicker, H 1999Changes in soil microbial biomass, metabolic quotient, and organic matter turnover under Hieracium (H. pilosella L.).Biol Fertil Soils302328(52, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sala, A, Smith, SD, Devitt, DA 1996Water use by Tamarix ramosissima and associated phreatophytes in a Mojave desert flooplain.Ecol Applic688898(53, O)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Saltonstall, K 2002Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA9924459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Scott, N, Saggar, S, McIntosh, PD 2001Biogeochemical impact of Hieracium invasion in New Zealand’s grazed tussock grasslands: sustainability implications.Ecol Applic11131122(54, O)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Smith, RE 1990Comparison of the plant water relations of Cunonia capensis and Pittosporum undulatum in a riparian woodland in the south-western Cape.S Afric J Bot5640912(55, O)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Smith, SD, Huxman, TE, Zitzer, SF, Charlet, TN, Housman, DC, Coleman, JS, Fenstermaker, LK, Seeman, JR, Nowak, RS 2000Elevated CO2 increases productivity and invasive species success in an arid ecosystem.Science4087982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Smith, TM, Shugart, HH, Woodward, FI 1997Plant functional types.Cambridge University PressCambridge (UK)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sokal, RR, Rohlf, FJ 1995Biometry.WIH FreemanNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Stock, WD, Wienand, KT, Baker, AC 1995Impacts of invading N2-fixing Acacia species on patterns of nutrient cycling in two Cape ecosystems: evidence from soil incubation studies and 15N natural abundance values.Oecologia10137582(56, O)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stohlgren, TJ, Binkley, D, Chong, G/W, Kalkhan, M/A, Schell, LD, Bull, K/A, Otsuki,, Newman G, Bashkin, M, Son, Y 1999Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity.Ecol Monogr692547Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stromberg, JC 1998Functional equivalency of saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis) and Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) along a free-flowing river.Wetlands1867586(57, O)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Templer, P, Findlay, S, Wigand, C 1998Sediment chemistry associated with native and non-native emergent macrophytes of a Hudson River marsh ecosystem.Wetlands18708(58, O)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tilman, D, Knops, J, Wedin, D, Peter, B, Ritchie, M, Siemann, E 1997The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes.Science27713002Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Trent JD, and others. 1994. Potential role of soil microorganisms in medusahead invasion. In: Monsen SB, Kitchen SG, editors. Proceedings—Ecology and management of annual rangelands. US Dept. of Agric Forestry Service Washington (DC): US Department of Agriculture. p 140–2. (59, O)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    van Breeman N. 1998. Plant-induced soil changes: processes and feedbacks. Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    van den Putten, WH 1997Plant–soil feedback as a selective force.Trends Ecol Evol1216970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    van Wilgren, BW, Richardson, DM 1985The effects of alien shrub invasions on vegetation structure and fire behaviour in South African fynbos shrublands: a simulation study.J Appl Ecol2295566(60, O)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Versfeld, DB, van Wilgren, BS 1986Impact of woody aliens on ecosystem properties.Macdonald, IAWKruger, FJFerrar, AA eds. The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa.Oxford University PressCape Town23946(61, R)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Vinton, MA, Burke, IC 1995Interactions between individual plant species and soil nutrient status in shortgrass steppe.Ecology76111633(62, O)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vinton, MA, Burke, IC 1997Contingent effects of plant species on soils along a regional moisture gradient in the Great Plains.Oecologia110393402(63, O)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vitousek, PM 1990Biological invasions and ecosystem processes: towards an integration of population biology and ecosystem studies.Oikos57713(64, R)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vitousek, PM, Walker, LR, Whiteaker, LD, Mueller-Dombois, D, Matson, PA 1987Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii.Science238802804(65, O)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Vivrette, NJ, Muller, CH 1977Mechanism of invasion and dominance of coastal grassland by Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.Ecol Applic47301318(66, O)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Walker, LR, Smith, SD 1997Impacts of invasive plants on community and ecosystem properties.Luken, JOThieret, JWLuken, JO eds. Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions.New YorkSpringer6986Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wardle, DA, Nicholson, KS, Rahman, A 1995Ecological effects of the invasive weed species Senecio jacobaea L. (ragwort) in a New Zealand pasture.Agric Ecosys Environ561928(67, O, EM)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wardle, DA, Nicholson, KS, Ahmed, M, Rahman, A 1994Interference effects of the invasive plant Carduus nutans L. against the nitrogen fixation ability of Trifolium repens/L.Plant Soil163287297(68, O)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wedin, D, Tilman, D 1990Species effects on nitrogen cycling: a test with perennial grasses.Oecologia84433441(69, EP)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wedin, D, Pastor, J 1993Nitrogen mineralization dynamics in grass monocultures.Oecologia96186192(70, EP)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wedin, D, Tilman, D 1996Influence of nitrogen loading and species composition on the carbon balance of grasslands.Science27417201723(71, EP)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Westover, KA, Kelley, SE 1997Patterns of rhizosphere microbial community structure associated with co-occurring plant species.J Ecol85863873Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Whigham, DF, Simpson, RL 1976The potential use of freshwater tidal marshes in the management of water quality in the Delaware River.Tourbier, JPierson, RWJ eds. Proceedings of a Symposium on Biological Control of Water Pollution.University of Pennsylvania Press.Philadelphia, PA1733186(72, O)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wilcove, D, Rothstein, D, Dubow, J, Phillips, A, Losos, E 1998Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States.BioScience48607616Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Williamson, MH, Fitter, A 1996The characters of successful invaders.Biol Conserv78163170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Windham, L 1999aEffects of an invasive reedgass, Phragmites australis, on nitrogen cycling in brackish tidal marsh of New York and New Jersey (Ph. D. thesis)Rutgers UniversityNew Brunswick, NJ(73, O)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Windham, L 2001Comparison of biomass production and decomposition between Phragmites australis (common reed) and Spartina patens (salt hay) in brackish tidal marsh of New Jersey.Wetlands21179188(74, O)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Windham L, Ehrenfeld JG. Forthcoming. Conflicting effects and the net impact of a plant invasion on nitrogen cycling processes within brackish tidal marshes. Ecol Applic (75, O)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Windham, L, Weis, J, Weis, P 2001Lead uptake, distribution and effects in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (Cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (Common Reed).Mar Pollut Bull42811816(76, O)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Windham, L, Lathrop,, RG 1999Effects of Phragmites australis (common reed) invasion on aboveground biomass and soil properties in brackish tidal marsh of the Mullica River, New Jersey.Estuaries2292735(77, O)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Witkowski, ETF 1991Effects of invasive alien acacias on nutrient cycling in the coastal lowlands of the Cape fynbos.J Appl Ecol28115(78, O)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Witkowski, ETF, Mitchell, DT 1987Variations in soil phosphorus in the fynbos biome, South Africa.J Ecol75115971(79, O)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yeates, GW, Williams, PA 2001Influence of three invasive weeds and site factors on soil microfauna in New Zealand.Pedobiologia4536783Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zavaleta, ES, Hobbs, RJ, Mooney, HA 2001Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context.Trends Ecol Evol164549CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Cook CollegeRutgers University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901USA

Personalised recommendations