Artificial Life and Robotics

, Volume 12, Issue 1–2, pp 329–334 | Cite as

The emergence of cooperation in the random asynchronous prisoner’s dilemma

Original Article


The iterated prisoners dilemma (IPD) is a simple model for the study of the emergence of cooperative behavior in populations of selfish individuals. In this work, we challenge the assumption that players move in synchrony, and develop a general Markovian model that allows the study of a wide spectrum of scenarios. Simulations show that the relative timing of player moves, and the reward for mutual cooperation, influences the strategy that eventually dominates the final population. For a synchronous environment, reciprocal behavior appears to be the key to the evolution of cooperation, while in an asynchronous environment, guarded generosity may be a route to the evolution of cooperation.

Key words

Asynchrony Prisoner’s dilemma Evolution of cooperation Evolutionary games Game theory 


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Copyright information

© International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics (ISAROB). 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIRO Centre for Complex Systems ScienceCSIRO Marine and Atmospheric ResearchCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.School of Information Technology and Electrical EngineeringUniversity of New South WalesCanberraAustralia

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