Uppaal SMC tutorial

  • Alexandre David
  • Kim G. Larsen
  • Axel Legay
  • Marius Mikučionis
  • Danny Bøgsted Poulsen
SMC

Abstract

This tutorial paper surveys the main features of Uppaal SMC, a model checking approach in Uppaal family that allows us to reason on networks of complex real-timed systems with a stochastic semantic. We demonstrate the modeling features of the tool, new verification algorithms and ways of applying them to potentially complex case studies.

Keywords

Uppaal Timed automata Model-checking Statistical model-checking Stochastic Hybrid  Dynamical Probabilistic 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreements No. 318490 (SENSATION) and No. 601148 (CASSTING). Also the research has received funding from the Sino-Danish Basic Research Center IDEA4CPS funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Science Foundation China. EU ARTEMIS grant agreement No. 269335 (MBAT).

References

  1. 1.
    Alur, R., Dill, D.L.: A theory of timed automata. Theor. Comput. Sci. 126(2), 183–235 (1994)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alur, R., Feder, T., Henzinger, T.A.: The benefits of relaxing punctuality. J. ACM 43(1), 116–146 (1996)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boyer, B., Corre, K., Legay, A., Sedwards, S.: Plasma-lab: a flexible, distributable statistical model checking library. In: QEST, pp. 160–164 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Behrmann, G., David, A., Larsen, K.G.: A tutorial on Uppaal. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 200–236 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Behrmann, G., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: Developing uppaal over 15 years. Softw. Pract. Exp. 41(2), 133–142 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bulychev, P., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Li, G., Poulsen, D.B.: Rewrite-based statistical model checking of wmtl. In: Runtime Verification, vol. 7687 of LNCS, pp. 260–275 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bulychev, P., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Li, G., Poulsen, D.B., Stainer, A.: Monitor-based statistical model checking for weighted metric temporal logic. In: Nikolaj, B., Voronkov, A. (eds.) 18th International Conference on Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning, vol. 7180 of LNCS, pp. 168–182. Springer (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bulychev, P.E., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M., Poulsen, D.B.: Checking and distributing statistical model checking. In: NASA Formal Methods, vol. 7226 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 449–463. Springer (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Behrmann, G., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Yi, W.: Unification & sharing in timed automata verification. In: SPIN Workshop 03, vol. 2648 of LNCS, pp. 225–229 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Behrmann, G.: Distributed reachability analysis in timed automata. STTT 7(1), 19–30 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Behrmann, G., Fehnker, A., Hune, T., Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Romijn, J.: Efficient guiding towards cost-optimality in uppaal. In: Margaria, T., Yi, W. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the construction and analysis of systems, number 2031 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 174–188. Springer (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Behrmann, G., Fehnker, A., Hune, T., Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Romijn, J., Vaandrager, F.: Minimum-cost reachability for priced timed automata. In: Di Benedetto, M.D., Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Hybris Systems: Computation and Control, number 2034 in Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences, pp. 147–161 Springer-Verlag (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Behrmann, G., Hune, T., Vaandrager, F.: Distributed timed model checking: How the search order matters. In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Chicago, Springer, Jul (2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Broy, M., Jonsson, B., Katoen, J-P., Leucker, M., Pretschner, A. (eds.): Model-based testing of reactive systems, advanced lectures the volume is the outcome of a research seminar that was held in Schloss Dagstuhl in January 2004, vol. 3472 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Behrmann, G., Larsen, K.G., Pearson, J., Weise, C., Yi, W.: Efficient timed reachability analysis using clock difference d iagrams. In: Proceedings of the 12th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verificat ion, vol. 1633 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clarke, E.M., Faeder, J.R., Langmead, C.J., Harris, L.A., Jha, S.K., Legay, A.: Statistical model checking in biolab: applications to the automated analysis of t-cell receptor signaling pathway. In: CMSB, LNCS, pp. 231–250 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clarke, E., Grumberg, O., Peled, D.: Model Checking. MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chernoff, H.: A measure of asymptotic efficiency for tests of a hypothesis based on the sum of observations. Ann. Math. Stat. 23(4), 493–507 (1952)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clopper, C.J., Pearson, E.S.: The use of confidence or fiducial limits illustrated in the case of the binomial. Biometrika 26(4), 404–413 (1934)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    David, A., Du, D., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M., Poulsen, D.B., Sedwards, S.: Statistical model checking for stochastic hybrid systems. In: Bartocci, E., Bortolussi, L. (eds.) HSB, vol. 92 of EPTCS, pp. 122–136 (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    David, A., Du, D., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M.: Optimizing control strategy using statistical model checking. In: NASA formal methods, vol. 7871 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 352–367. Springer (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    David, A., Jensen, P.G., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Lime, D., Søresensen, M.G., Taankvist, J.H.: On time with miniam expected costGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M., Poulsen, D.B., Vliet, J.V., Wang, Z.: Statistical model checking for networks of priced timed automata. In: FORMATS, LNCS, pp. 80–96. Springer (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M., Poulsen, D.B., Sedwards, S.: Runtime verification of biological systems. In: Margaria, T., Steffen, B. (eds.), ISoLA (1), vol. 7609 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 388–404. Springer (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    David, A., Möller, M.O., Yi, W.: Formal verification of UML statecharts with real-time extensions. In: Kutsche, R.-D., Weber, H. (eds.) Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, 5th International Conference, FASE 2002, vol. 2306 of LNCS, pp. 218–232. Springer (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Henriques, D., Martins, J.G., Zuliani, P., Platzer, A., Clarke, E.M.: Statistical model checking for markov decision processes. In: Ninth International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2012, London, United Kingdom, Sept 17–20, 2012, pp. 84–93. IEEE Computer Society (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hartmanns, A.: Model-checking and simulation for stochastic timed systems. In: Bernhard, K.A., De Boer, F.S., Marcello M.B. (eds.) FMCO, vol. 6957 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 372–391. Springer (2010)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Henzinger, T.A., Ho, P.-H.: Algorithmic analysis of nonlinear hybrid systems. In: Wolper, P. (ed.) Computer Aided Verification, 7th International Conference, Liège, Belgium, July, 3–5, 1995, Proceedings, vol. 939 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 225–238. Springer (1995)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hendriks, M., Larsen, K.G.: Exact acceleration of real-time model checking. In: Asarin, E., Maler, O., Yovine, S. (eds.) Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 65. Elsevier Science Publishers (2002)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hérault, T., Lassaigne, R., Magniette, F., Peyronnet, S.: Approximate probabilistic model checking. In: Steffen, B., Levi, G. (eds.) Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation, vol. 2937 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 73–84. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hoeffding, W.: Probability inequalities for sums of bounded random variables. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 58(301), 13–30 (1963)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jha, S.K., Clarke, E.M., Langmead, C.J., Legay, A., Platzer, A., Zuliani, P.: A bayesian approach to model checking biological systems. In: CMSB, vol. 5688 of LNCS, pp. 218–234. Springer (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jégourel, C., Legay, A., Sedwards, S.: Importance splitting for statistical model checking rare properties. In: CAV, vol. 8044 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 576–591. Springer (2013)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kwiatkowska, M.Z., Norman, G., Parker, D.: Prism 2.0: A tool for probabilistic model checking. In: Proc. of 1th Int. Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems (QEST), pp. 322–323. IEEE (2004)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Larsen, K.G., Behrmann, G., Brinksma, E., Fehnker, A., Hune, T., Pettersson, P., Romijn, J.: As cheap as possible: efficient cost-optimal reachability for priced timed automata. In: Berry, G., Comon, H., Finkel, A. (eds.) Proceedings of CAV 2001, number 2102 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 493–505. Springer (2001)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Larsson, F., Larsen, K.G.,Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: Efficient verification of real-time systems: Compact data structures and state-space reduction. In: Proc. of the 18th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp. 14–24. IEEE Computer Society Press (1997)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: Uppaal in a Nutshell. Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 1(1–2), 134–152 (1997)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sen, K., Viswanathan, M., Agha, G.: Statistical model checking of black-box probabilistic systems. In: CAV, LNCS 3114, pp. 202–215. Springer (2004)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Theelen, B.D.: Performance modelling for system-level design. Ph.D. thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, (2004) ISBN 90-386-1633-3Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wald, A.: Sequential tests of statistical hypotheses. Ann. Math. Stat. 16(2), 117–186 (1945)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Younes, H.L.S.: Verification and planning for stochastic processes with asynchronous events. Ph.D. thesis, Carnegie Mellon (2005)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yi, W., Pettersson, P., Daniels, M.: Automatic verification of real-time communicating systems by constraint-solving. In: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG6.1 International Conference on Formal Description Techniques VII, pp. 243–258, London, UK, UK, Chapman & Hall Ltd (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandre David
    • 1
  • Kim G. Larsen
    • 1
  • Axel Legay
    • 2
  • Marius Mikučionis
    • 1
  • Danny Bøgsted Poulsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.INRIA/IRISA RennesRennesFrance

Personalised recommendations