Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Uppaal SMC tutorial

Abstract

This tutorial paper surveys the main features of Uppaal SMC, a model checking approach in Uppaal family that allows us to reason on networks of complex real-timed systems with a stochastic semantic. We demonstrate the modeling features of the tool, new verification algorithms and ways of applying them to potentially complex case studies.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
Fig. 29

Notes

  1. 1.

    Exceptions being stochastic TAs with 0 or 1 clocks and with \(p\) being 0 or 1.

  2. 2.

    This may require moving local variables to the global scope to make the state visible.

  3. 3.

    Uppaal SMC detects Zeno runs and rejects models producing them.

  4. 4.

    The actual controller is not important for this example and is not given here.

References

  1. 1.

    Alur, R., Dill, D.L.: A theory of timed automata. Theor. Comput. Sci. 126(2), 183–235 (1994)

  2. 2.

    Alur, R., Feder, T., Henzinger, T.A.: The benefits of relaxing punctuality. J. ACM 43(1), 116–146 (1996)

  3. 3.

    Boyer, B., Corre, K., Legay, A., Sedwards, S.: Plasma-lab: a flexible, distributable statistical model checking library. In: QEST, pp. 160–164 (2013)

  4. 4.

    Behrmann, G., David, A., Larsen, K.G.: A tutorial on Uppaal. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 200–236 (2004)

  5. 5.

    Behrmann, G., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: Developing uppaal over 15 years. Softw. Pract. Exp. 41(2), 133–142 (2011)

  6. 6.

    Bulychev, P., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Li, G., Poulsen, D.B.: Rewrite-based statistical model checking of wmtl. In: Runtime Verification, vol. 7687 of LNCS, pp. 260–275 (2012)

  7. 7.

    Bulychev, P., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Li, G., Poulsen, D.B., Stainer, A.: Monitor-based statistical model checking for weighted metric temporal logic. In: Nikolaj, B., Voronkov, A. (eds.) 18th International Conference on Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning, vol. 7180 of LNCS, pp. 168–182. Springer (2012)

  8. 8.

    Bulychev, P.E., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M., Poulsen, D.B.: Checking and distributing statistical model checking. In: NASA Formal Methods, vol. 7226 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 449–463. Springer (2012)

  9. 9.

    Behrmann, G., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Yi, W.: Unification & sharing in timed automata verification. In: SPIN Workshop 03, vol. 2648 of LNCS, pp. 225–229 (2003)

  10. 10.

    Behrmann, G.: Distributed reachability analysis in timed automata. STTT 7(1), 19–30 (2005)

  11. 11.

    Behrmann, G., Fehnker, A., Hune, T., Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Romijn, J.: Efficient guiding towards cost-optimality in uppaal. In: Margaria, T., Yi, W. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the construction and analysis of systems, number 2031 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 174–188. Springer (2001)

  12. 12.

    Behrmann, G., Fehnker, A., Hune, T., Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Romijn, J., Vaandrager, F.: Minimum-cost reachability for priced timed automata. In: Di Benedetto, M.D., Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Hybris Systems: Computation and Control, number 2034 in Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences, pp. 147–161 Springer-Verlag (2001)

  13. 13.

    Behrmann, G., Hune, T., Vaandrager, F.: Distributed timed model checking: How the search order matters. In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Chicago, Springer, Jul (2000)

  14. 14.

    Broy, M., Jonsson, B., Katoen, J-P., Leucker, M., Pretschner, A. (eds.): Model-based testing of reactive systems, advanced lectures the volume is the outcome of a research seminar that was held in Schloss Dagstuhl in January 2004, vol. 3472 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer (2005)

  15. 15.

    Behrmann, G., Larsen, K.G., Pearson, J., Weise, C., Yi, W.: Efficient timed reachability analysis using clock difference d iagrams. In: Proceedings of the 12th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verificat ion, vol. 1633 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer (1999)

  16. 16.

    Clarke, E.M., Faeder, J.R., Langmead, C.J., Harris, L.A., Jha, S.K., Legay, A.: Statistical model checking in biolab: applications to the automated analysis of t-cell receptor signaling pathway. In: CMSB, LNCS, pp. 231–250 (2008)

  17. 17.

    Clarke, E., Grumberg, O., Peled, D.: Model Checking. MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)

  18. 18.

    Chernoff, H.: A measure of asymptotic efficiency for tests of a hypothesis based on the sum of observations. Ann. Math. Stat. 23(4), 493–507 (1952)

  19. 19.

    Clopper, C.J., Pearson, E.S.: The use of confidence or fiducial limits illustrated in the case of the binomial. Biometrika 26(4), 404–413 (1934)

  20. 20.

    David, A., Du, D., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M., Poulsen, D.B., Sedwards, S.: Statistical model checking for stochastic hybrid systems. In: Bartocci, E., Bortolussi, L. (eds.) HSB, vol. 92 of EPTCS, pp. 122–136 (2012)

  21. 21.

    David, A., Du, D., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M.: Optimizing control strategy using statistical model checking. In: NASA formal methods, vol. 7871 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 352–367. Springer (2013)

  22. 22.

    David, A., Jensen, P.G., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Lime, D., Søresensen, M.G., Taankvist, J.H.: On time with miniam expected cost

  23. 23.

    David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M., Poulsen, D.B., Vliet, J.V., Wang, Z.: Statistical model checking for networks of priced timed automata. In: FORMATS, LNCS, pp. 80–96. Springer (2011)

  24. 24.

    David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A., Mikučionis, M., Poulsen, D.B., Sedwards, S.: Runtime verification of biological systems. In: Margaria, T., Steffen, B. (eds.), ISoLA (1), vol. 7609 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 388–404. Springer (2012)

  25. 25.

    David, A., Möller, M.O., Yi, W.: Formal verification of UML statecharts with real-time extensions. In: Kutsche, R.-D., Weber, H. (eds.) Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, 5th International Conference, FASE 2002, vol. 2306 of LNCS, pp. 218–232. Springer (2002)

  26. 26.

    Henriques, D., Martins, J.G., Zuliani, P., Platzer, A., Clarke, E.M.: Statistical model checking for markov decision processes. In: Ninth International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2012, London, United Kingdom, Sept 17–20, 2012, pp. 84–93. IEEE Computer Society (2012)

  27. 27.

    Hartmanns, A.: Model-checking and simulation for stochastic timed systems. In: Bernhard, K.A., De Boer, F.S., Marcello M.B. (eds.) FMCO, vol. 6957 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 372–391. Springer (2010)

  28. 28.

    Henzinger, T.A., Ho, P.-H.: Algorithmic analysis of nonlinear hybrid systems. In: Wolper, P. (ed.) Computer Aided Verification, 7th International Conference, Liège, Belgium, July, 3–5, 1995, Proceedings, vol. 939 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 225–238. Springer (1995)

  29. 29.

    Hendriks, M., Larsen, K.G.: Exact acceleration of real-time model checking. In: Asarin, E., Maler, O., Yovine, S. (eds.) Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 65. Elsevier Science Publishers (2002)

  30. 30.

    Hérault, T., Lassaigne, R., Magniette, F., Peyronnet, S.: Approximate probabilistic model checking. In: Steffen, B., Levi, G. (eds.) Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation, vol. 2937 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 73–84. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2004)

  31. 31.

    Hoeffding, W.: Probability inequalities for sums of bounded random variables. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 58(301), 13–30 (1963)

  32. 32.

    Jha, S.K., Clarke, E.M., Langmead, C.J., Legay, A., Platzer, A., Zuliani, P.: A bayesian approach to model checking biological systems. In: CMSB, vol. 5688 of LNCS, pp. 218–234. Springer (2009)

  33. 33.

    Jégourel, C., Legay, A., Sedwards, S.: Importance splitting for statistical model checking rare properties. In: CAV, vol. 8044 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 576–591. Springer (2013)

  34. 34.

    Kwiatkowska, M.Z., Norman, G., Parker, D.: Prism 2.0: A tool for probabilistic model checking. In: Proc. of 1th Int. Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems (QEST), pp. 322–323. IEEE (2004)

  35. 35.

    Larsen, K.G., Behrmann, G., Brinksma, E., Fehnker, A., Hune, T., Pettersson, P., Romijn, J.: As cheap as possible: efficient cost-optimal reachability for priced timed automata. In: Berry, G., Comon, H., Finkel, A. (eds.) Proceedings of CAV 2001, number 2102 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 493–505. Springer (2001)

  36. 36.

    Larsson, F., Larsen, K.G.,Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: Efficient verification of real-time systems: Compact data structures and state-space reduction. In: Proc. of the 18th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp. 14–24. IEEE Computer Society Press (1997)

  37. 37.

    Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: Uppaal in a Nutshell. Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 1(1–2), 134–152 (1997)

  38. 38.

    Sen, K., Viswanathan, M., Agha, G.: Statistical model checking of black-box probabilistic systems. In: CAV, LNCS 3114, pp. 202–215. Springer (2004)

  39. 39.

    Theelen, B.D.: Performance modelling for system-level design. Ph.D. thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, (2004) ISBN 90-386-1633-3

  40. 40.

    Wald, A.: Sequential tests of statistical hypotheses. Ann. Math. Stat. 16(2), 117–186 (1945)

  41. 41.

    Younes, H.L.S.: Verification and planning for stochastic processes with asynchronous events. Ph.D. thesis, Carnegie Mellon (2005)

  42. 42.

    Yi, W., Pettersson, P., Daniels, M.: Automatic verification of real-time communicating systems by constraint-solving. In: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG6.1 International Conference on Formal Description Techniques VII, pp. 243–258, London, UK, UK, Chapman & Hall Ltd (1995)

Download references

Acknowledgments

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreements No. 318490 (SENSATION) and No. 601148 (CASSTING). Also the research has received funding from the Sino-Danish Basic Research Center IDEA4CPS funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Science Foundation China. EU ARTEMIS grant agreement No. 269335 (MBAT).

Author information

Correspondence to Axel Legay.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

David, A., Larsen, K.G., Legay, A. et al. Uppaal SMC tutorial. Int J Softw Tools Technol Transfer 17, 397–415 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10009-014-0361-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Uppaal
  • Timed automata
  • Model-checking
  • Statistical model-checking
  • Stochastic
  • Hybrid
  • Dynamical
  • Probabilistic