Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Performance of Ni/10Sc1CeSZ anode synthesized by glycine nitrate process assisted by microwave heating in a solid oxide fuel cell fueled with hydrogen or methane

  • 25 Accesses

Abstract

Nickel/scandia-ceria-stabilized-zirconia (Ni/10Sc1CeSZ) cermet is a potential anode for solid oxide fuel cells. The anode powder is prepared through a microwave-assisted glycine nitrate combustion process, and its properties, including phase and chemical composition as well as morphology, are characterized by XRD, TEM, and EDS techniques. The electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior under low concentration of dry hydrogen (H2:N2 volume ratio = 10:90) and dry methane (CH4:N2 volume ratio = 50:50) fuels are determined. XRD results show two phases, namely, cubic NiO phase and cubic 10Sc1CeSZ phase, with the crystallite sizes of 67 and 40 nm, respectively. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the prepared anode measured using a symmetrical cell of Ni/10Sc1CeSZ|10Sc1CeSZ|Ni/10Sc1CeSZ are 0.96 and 24.3 Ω cm2 observed at 800 °C in dry low hydrogen concentration (10 vol% hydrogen–90 vol% nitrogen) and dry methane (50 vol% methane–50 vol% nitrogen) fuels, respectively. The ASR in methane fuel is higher than that in hydrogen fuel at all operating temperatures (600–800 °C) because of carbon deposition. The amount of deposited carbon and degree of graphitization (IG/ID) of this anode after exposure in methane at 800 °C for 3 h are 4.34% and 2.1, respectively. Overall, Ni/10Sc1CeSZ cermet synthesized by glycine nitrate process assisted with microwave-heating technique exhibits acceptable electrochemical behavior even at low hydrogen concentration and also in dry methane. This can be related to the improved powder morphology as a result of uniform heating assisted by microwave energy.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Shaikh SP, Muchtar A, Somalu MR (2015) A review on the selection of anode materials for solid-oxide fuel cells. Renew Sust Energ Rev 51:1–8

  2. 2.

    Wang W, Su C, Wu Y, Ran R, Shao Z (2013) Progress in solid oxide fuel cells with nickel-based anodes operating on methane and related fuels. Chem Rev 113(10):8104–8151

  3. 3.

    Prakash BS, Kumar SS, Aruna S (2014) Properties and development of Ni/YSZ as an anode material in solid oxide fuel cell: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 36:149–179

  4. 4.

    Ideris A, Croiset E, Pritzker M, Amin A (2017) Direct-methane solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with Ni-SDC anode-supported cell. Int J Hydrog Energy 42(36):23118–23129

  5. 5.

    Itagaki Y, Cui J, Ito N, Aono H, Yahiro H (2018) Electrophoretically deposited Ni-loaded (SmO1.5)0.2(CeO2)0.8 anode for ammonia-fueled solid oxide fuel cell. ECS Trans 85(13):779–786

  6. 6.

    Chen Z-y, Bian L-z, Yu Z-y, Wang L-j, Li F-s, Chou K-C (2018) Effects of specific surface area of metallic nickel particles on carbon deposition kinetics. Int J Miner Metall Mater 25(2):226–235

  7. 7.

    Mahmud LS, Muchtar A, Somalu MR (2016) Influence of sintering temperature on NiO-SDCC anode for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). Ceramics–Silikáty 60(4):317–323

  8. 8.

    Seyednezhad M, Rajabi A, Muchtar A, Somalu MR (2016) Nanostructured and nonsymmetrical NiO–SDC/SDC composite anode performance via a microwave-assisted route for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Mater Manuf Process 31(10):1301–1305

  9. 9.

    Ng KH, Rahman HA, Somalu MR (2018) Enhancement of composite anode materials for low-temperature solid oxide fuels. Int J Hydrog Energy 44:30692–30704

  10. 10.

    Somalu MR, Yufit V, Cumming D, Lorente E, Brandon N (2011) Fabrication and characterization of Ni/ScSZ cermet anodes for IT-SOFCs. Int J Hydrog Energy 36(9):5557–5566

  11. 11.

    Baity PSN, Budiana B, Suasmoro S (2017) Preparation of Ni–YSZ cermet through reduction of NiO–YSZ ceramic for SOFC anode. IOP Conference Series: Mater Sci Eng 214(1):012029

  12. 12.

    Kim J, Cho K, Kagomiya I, Park K (2013) Structural studies of porous Ni/YSZ cermets fabricated by the solid-state reaction method. Ceram Int 39(7):7467–7474

  13. 13.

    Bebelis S, Tiropani C, Neophytides S (2001) Polarization behavior of Ni-YSZ cermet anodes in YSZ fuel cells running on methane under internal reforming conditions. Ionics 7(1–2):32–43

  14. 14.

    Hua B, Li M, Chi B, Jian L (2014) Enhanced electrochemical performance and carbon deposition resistance of Ni–YSZ anode of solid oxide fuel cells by in situ formed Ni–MnO layer for CH4 on-cell reforming. J Mater Chem A 2(4):1150–1158

  15. 15.

    Liu Z, Liu B, Ding D, Liu M, Chen F, Xia C (2013) Fabrication and modification of solid oxide fuel cell anodes via wet impregnation/infiltration technique. J Power Sources 237:243–259

  16. 16.

    Connor PA, Yue X, Savaniu CD, Price R, Triantafyllou G, Cassidy M, Kerherve G, Payne DJ, Maher RC, Cohen LF (2018) Tailoring SOFC electrode microstructures for improved performance. Advan Energy Mater 8(23):1800120

  17. 17.

    Zielke P, Xu Y, Simonsen SB, Norby P, Kiebach R (2016) Simulation, design and proof-of-concept of a two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor for synthesis of functionalized nano-sized inorganic composite materials. J Supercrit Fluids 117:1–12

  18. 18.

    Skalar T, Zupan K, Marinšek M (2019) Microstructure tailoring of combustion-derived Ni-GDC and Ni-SDC composites as anode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. J Aust Ceram Soc 55(1):123–133

  19. 19.

    Cho CK, Choi BH, Lee KT (2012) Effect of Co alloying on the electrochemical performance of Ni–Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 anodes for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells. J Alloys Compd 541:433–439

  20. 20.

    Garcia RM, Cervera RB (2019) Morphology and structure of Ni/Zr0.84Sc0.16O1.92 electrode material synthesized via glycine-nitrate combustion method for solid oxide electrochemical cell. Appl Sci 9(2):264–273

  21. 21.

    Yang C, Cheng JG, He HG, Gao JF (2010) Ni/SDC materials for solid oxide fuel cell anode applications by the glycine-nitrate method. Key Eng Mater 434:731–734

  22. 22.

    Jais AA, Muhammed Ali SA, Anwar M, Somalu MR, Muchtar A, Isahak WNRW, Tan CY, Singh R, Brandon NP (2017) Enhanced ionic conductivity of scandia-ceria-stabilized-zirconia (10Sc1CeSZ) electrolyte synthesized by the microwave-assisted glycine nitrate process. Ceram Int 43(11):8119–8125

  23. 23.

    Ali SM, Anwar M, Somalu MR, Muchtar A (2017) Enhancement of the interfacial polarization resistance of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathode by microwave-assisted combustion method. Ceram Int 43(5):4647–4654

  24. 24.

    Ao H, Liu X, Zhang H, Zhou J, Huang X, Feng Z, Xu H (2015) Preparation of scandia stabilized zirconia powder using microwave-hydrothermal method. J Rare Earths 33(7):746–751

  25. 25.

    Molero-Sánchez B, Prado-Gonjal J, Ávila-Brande D, Birss V, Morán E (2015) Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of new cathodic material for solid oxide fuel cells: La0.3Ca0.7Fe0.7Cr0.3O3−δ. Ceram Int 41(7):8411–8416

  26. 26.

    Vijay SK, Chandramouli V, Khan S, Clinsha P, Anthonysamy S (2014) Microwave assisted gel-combustion synthesis of 8mol% YSZ: a study of the effect of fuel on the ionic conductivity. Ceram Int 40(10):16689–16699

  27. 27.

    Tongxiang C, Yanwei Z, Wei Z, Cuijing G, Xiaowei Y (2010) Synthesis of nanocomposite nickel oxide/yttrium-stabilized zirconia (NiO/YSZ) powders for anodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) via microwave-assisted complex-gel auto-combustion. J Power Sources 195(5):1308–1315

  28. 28.

    Ramesh S, Zulkifli N, Tan CY, Wong YH, Tarlochan F, Teng WD, Sopyan I, Bang LT, Sarhan AAD (2018) Comparison between microwave and conventional sintering on the properties and microstructural evolution of tetragonal zirconia. Ceram Int 44(8):8922–8927

  29. 29.

    Chandore V, Carpenter G, Sen R, Gupta N (2013) Synthesis of nano crystalline ZnO by microwave assisted combustion method: an eco friendly and solvent free route. Int J Environ Sci: Dev Monit(IJESDM) 4(2):45–47

  30. 30.

    Garadkar K, Kadam A, Park J (2018) Microwave-assisted sol-gel synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials. In: Klein L, Aparicio M, Jitianu A (eds) Handbook of sol-gel science and technology. Springer International Publishing, New York, pp 483–504

  31. 31.

    Shaikh SP, Somalu MR, Muchtar A (2016) Nanostructured Cu-CGO anodes fabricated using a microwave-assisted glycine–nitrate process. J Phys Chem Solids 98:91–99

  32. 32.

    Sun H, Zhang Y, Gong H, Li Q, Bu Y, Li T (2016) Anode-supported SOFCs based on Sm0.2Ce0.8O2−δ electrolyte thin-films fabricated by co-pressing using microwave combustion synthesized powders. Ceram Int 42(3):4285–4289

  33. 33.

    Somalu MR, Muchtar A, Daud WRW, Brandon NP (2017) Screen-printing inks for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell films: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 75:426–439

  34. 34.

    Samat AA, Jais AA, Somalu MR, Osman N, Muchtar A, Lim KL (2018) Electrical and electrochemical characteristics of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ cathode materials synthesized by a modified citrate-EDTA sol-gel method assisted with activated carbon for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cell application. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 86(3):617–630

  35. 35.

    Baharuddin NA, Muchtar A, Somalu MR, Kalib NS, Raduwan NF (2019) Synthesis and characterization of cobalt-free SrFe0·8Ti0·2O3-δ cathode powders synthesized through combustion method for solid oxide fuel cells. Int J Hydrog Energy 44(58):30682–30691

  36. 36.

    Macedo DA, Figueiredo FM, Paskocimas CA, Martinelli AE, Nascimento RM, Marques FM (2014) Ni–CGO cermet anodes from nanocomposite powders: microstructural and electrochemical assessment. Ceram Int 40(8):13105–13113

  37. 37.

    Puengjinda P, Muroyama H, Matsui T, Kawano M, Inagaki T, Eguchi K (2010) Influence of preparation methods on the carbon deposition and reduction behavior of Ni–ScSZ cermet. J Electrochem Soc 157(11):B1673–B1678

  38. 38.

    Yoshito WK, Ussui V, Lazar DRR, Pascoal JOA (2005) Synthesis and characterization of NiO-8YSZ powders by coprecipitation route. In: Materials science forum. Trans Tech Publ 498-499:612–617

  39. 39.

    Kim B, Cho K, Choi J, Shin D (2015) Preparation of NiO-YSZ composite powder through 2-step hydrothermal synthesis and its application to solid oxide fuel cell anode functional layer. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 15(1):536–539

  40. 40.

    Tanhaei M, Mozammel M, Javanshir E, Ilkhechi NN (2017) Porosity, microstructure and mechanical behavior of NiO–YSZ composite anode for solid oxide fuel cells. Int J Mater Res 108(10):857–863

  41. 41.

    Patro P, Delahaye T, Bouyer E, Sinha P (2012) Microstructural development of Ni-1Ce10ScSZ cermet electrode for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application. Int J Hydrog Energy 37(4):3865–3873

  42. 42.

    Chen J, Bertei A, Ruiz-Trejo E, Atkinson A, Brandon NP (2017) Characterization of degradation in nickel impregnated scandia-stabilize zirconia electrodes during isothermal annealing. J Electrochem Soc 164(9):F935–F943

  43. 43.

    Spirin A, Nikonov A, Lipilin A, Khrustov V, Kuterbekov K, Nurakhmetov T, Bekmyrza KZ (2016) Effect of structural parameters of Ni-ScSZ cermet components on the SOFC anodes characteristics. Russ J Electrochem 52(7):613–621

  44. 44.

    Somalu MR, Muchtar A, Brandon NP (2017) Properties of screen-printed nickel/scandia-stabilized-zirconia anodes fabricated using rheologically optimized inks during redox cycles. J Mater Sci 52(12):7175–7185

  45. 45.

    Bebelis S, Neophytides S (2002) AC impedance study of Ni–YSZ cermet anodes in methane-fuelled internal reforming YSZ fuel cells. Solid State Ionics 152:447–453

  46. 46.

    Mahata T, Nair S, Lenka R, Sinha P (2012) Fabrication of Ni-YSZ anode supported tubular SOFC through iso-pressing and co-firing route. Int J Hydrog Energy 37(4):3874–3882

  47. 47.

    Mermelstein J, Millan M, Brandon N (2010) The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes. J Power Sources 195(6):1657–1666

  48. 48.

    Seyednezhad M, Rajabi A, Muchtar A, Somalu MR (2015) Characterization of IT-SOFC non-symmetrical anode sintered through conventional furnace and microwave. Ceram Int 41(4):5663–5669

  49. 49.

    Ideris A, Croiset E, Pritzker M (2017) Ni-samaria-doped ceria (Ni-SDC) anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating with CO. Int J Hydrog Energy 42(14):9180–9187

  50. 50.

    Buccheri MA, Singh A, Hill JM (2011) Anode-versus electrolyte-supported Ni-YSZ/YSZ/Pt SOFCs: effect of cell design on OCV, performance and carbon formation for the direct utilization of dry methane. J Power Sources 196(3):968–976

  51. 51.

    Mahmud LS, Muchtar A, Somalu MR, Jais AA (2017) Processing of composites based on NiO, samarium-doped ceria and carbonates (NiO-SDCC) as anode support for solid oxide fuel cells. Process Appl Ceramics 11(3):206–212

  52. 52.

    Kusnezoff M, Trofimenko N, Müller M, Michaelis A (2016) Influence of electrode design and contacting layers on performance of electrolyte supported SOFC/SOEC single cells. Materials 9(11):906

  53. 53.

    Uma K, Chu CH, Pan GT, Yang TC, Wang SF (2018) Hydrogen production of nickel–scandia-stabilized zirconia and copper/nickel–scandia-stabilized zirconia catalysts through steam methane reforming for solid oxide fuel cell operation. Clean Techn Environ Policy 20(9):2067–2074

  54. 54.

    Awadallah AE, Mostafa MS, Aboul-Enein AA, Hanafi SA (2014) Hydrogen production via methane decomposition over Al2O3–TiO2 binary oxides supported Ni catalysts: effect of Ti content on the catalytic efficiency. Fuel 129:68–77

  55. 55.

    Cho CK, Lee KT (2013) Characterization of Ni1-xCuxCe0.8Gd0.2O1.9 composite anodes for methane-fueled solid oxide fuel cells. J Ceram Process Res 14(1):59–64

  56. 56.

    Guo Y, Wan T, Zhu A, Shi T, Zhang G, Wang C, Yu H, Shao Z (2017) Performance and durability of a layered proton conducting solid oxide fuel cell fueled by the dry reforming of methane. RSC Adv 7(70):44319–44325

Download references

Acknowledgments

Abdul Azim Jais gratefully acknowledges the Ministry of Education Malaysia and Universiti Malaysia Pahang for the PhD scholarship. The authors thankfully acknowledge the Centre for Research and Instrumentation Management, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, for providing excellent testing equipment.

Funding

This study was financially supported by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and the Ministry of Higher Education via the grant of Research University (Grant number DIP-2018-013) and the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/2/2014/ST05/UKM/03/1), respectively.

Author information

Correspondence to Mahendra Rao Somalu.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jais, A.A., Ali, S.A.M., Anwar, M. et al. Performance of Ni/10Sc1CeSZ anode synthesized by glycine nitrate process assisted by microwave heating in a solid oxide fuel cell fueled with hydrogen or methane. J Solid State Electrochem (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-020-04512-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Solid oxide fuel cell
  • Nickel/scandia-stabilized zirconia
  • Microwave heating, electrical conductivity
  • Electrochemical performance
  • Graphitization degree