Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 159–167 | Cite as

Electrochemical deposition of cabbage-like lead microstructures on fluorine-doped tin oxide for oxygen sensor application

  • Dharini Bhagat
  • Manmohansingh Waldiya
  • Indrajit MukhopadhyayEmail author
Original Paper


Metallic lead (Pb) has been electrodeposited on FTO substrate at room temperature from aqueous nitrate solution under constant applied potential in the range of − 0.46 to − 0.8 V vs. SCE. Cyclic voltammetry shows that 3D nucleation and growth are the main feature at higher electrolyte concentration when the profile is recorded at 20 mVs−1. While a single step potential facilitates the deposition of faceted crystals of Pb, distinguished lead having cabbage-like morphology can be deposited by applying sequential two step potentials. The I-t response shows that the deposition is initiated through instantaneous 2D nucleation and growth at the shorter time domain followed by 3D nucleation and growth in 0.4 M Pb(NO3)2. Theoretical simulation of the closely matched experimental I-t profile for simple step potential provides a 2D rate constant of 2.00 ± 0.04 × 10−7 mol cm−2 s−1 while for 3D, the vertical and plane growth rate constant of 3.27 ± 0.05 × 10−5 mol cm−2 s−1 and 2.00 ± 0.04 × 10−7 mol cm−2 s−1, respectively. The formation of the cabbage morphology has been discussed on the basis of time evaluation of FE-SEM. The high surface area of unique lead deposits with cabbage morphology shows better life time and oxygen sensitivity in a typical oxygen sensor application.

Graphical abstract


Lead metal Electrodeposition Nucleation and growth Oxygen sensor Pre-nucleated surface Cabbage-like morphology 



The authors would like to acknowledge Solar Research & Development Centre (SRDC), Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University (PDPU), for providing the technical and financial assistance.

Funding information

Financial support from the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, (Project number SR/S1/PC-44/2011), is deeply acknowledged to carry out this whole investigation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Solar Research and Development Centre, Department of Solar EnergyPandit Deendayal Petroleum UniversityGandhinagarIndia

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