Reduced graphene oxide-encapsulated mesoporous silica as sulfur host for lithium–sulfur battery
With up to fivefold higher in energy density vs. lithium-ion battery, lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is a compelling energy storage system, complemented by a very low cost of sulfur. However, current Li–S cells face the capacity decay caused by the dissolution of lithium polysulfides. In this work, a new material concept, namely the “layer @ adsorbent” is introduced to address the capacity fading problem. This architecture utilizes mesoporous SiO2 holding sulfur and polysulfides and the whole S fused SiO2 was intimately encapsulated by reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Benefiting from the enhanced capillary force from SiO2, as well as the improved conductivity from RGO chamber, this “layer @ adsorbent” architecture could easily spread and adsorb polysulfides. The initial discharge capacity is approaching its theoretical capacity (1567 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C). A stable cycle performance over 500 cycles is demonstrated with the capacity loss of merely about 0.05% per cycle. Additionally, the cathode with higher sulfur content (67%) delivers a stable reversible capacity (400 mAh g−1) over 500 cycles at higher current of 2 C.
KeywordsLithium–sulfur battery Cathode Mesoporous silica Graphene Polysulfide adsorption
This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Grant numbers 51372052, 51772060, and 51621091). Data is available from the Online Resource or from the author.
- 3.Hong-Jie P, Jia-Qi H, Meng-Qiang Z, Qiang Z, Xin-Bing C, Xin-Yan L, Wei-Zhong Q, Fei W (2014) Nanoarchitectured graphene/CNT@porous carbon with extraordinary electrical conductivity and interconnected micro/mesopores for lithium-sulfur batteries. Adv Funct Mater 24(19):2772–2781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Chen T, Cheng B, Zhu G, Chen R, Hu Y, Ma L, Lv H, Wang Y, Liang J, Tie Z (2016) Highly efficient retention of polysulfides in “sea urchin”-like carbon nanotube/nanopolyhedra superstructures as cathode material for ultralong-life lithium–sulfur batteries. Nano Lett 17(1):437–444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Liang X, Kwok CY, Lodi-Marzano F, Pang Q, Cuisinier M, Huang H, Hart CJ, Houtarde D, Kaup K, Sommer H, Brezesinski T, Janek J, Nazar LF (2016) Tuning transition metal oxide-sulfur interactions for long life Lithium sulfur batteries: the “goldilocks” principle. Adv. Energy Mater 6(6):1501636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Matsushima T, Ono K (1958) Fundamental research on sulfur. (V): some interfacial phenomena between liquid sulfur, water, solid and gas. Bulletin of the Research Institute of Mineral Dressing & Metallurgy Tohoku University 13:147–157Google Scholar