Electrochemical characterization of fine-grained blast furnace sludge after acid leaching using carbon paste electrode
- 32 Downloads
The paper deals with the study of electrochemical properties of blast furnace sludge after acid leaching (BFSL) using modified carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) in acidic (1 M HCl) and alkaline (1 M NaOH) electrolyte. A polyamide holder with exchangeable tips was developed. The effect of their geometric parameters on the electrochemical response was monitored. The electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different scan rates. The hematite and magnetite served as comparative model modifiers. The identification of reaction products was performed using the RTG diffraction and SEM/EDX analyses. It was found that reduction reactions are suppressed at acidic pH. On the contrary, in an alkaline media, a significant peak corresponding to the electrode reduction of iron oxides based on the scheme Fe3+ → Fe2+ → Fe0 was identified in the BFSL reduction region. XRD and SEM analyses of the active surface of modified CPE showed the formation of nanostructured Fe. The results provide direction for the further use of BFSL.
KeywordsBlast furnace sludge Hematite Magnetite Carbon paste electrode Cyclic voltammetry
The study was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic research project nos. SP2017/50 and no. SP2018/79. Some of the analytical work was performed using equipment that was financed by the project “Institute of Clean Technologies for Mining and Utilisation of Raw Materials for Energy”, reg. no. LO1406, and supported by the “Research and Development for Innovations Operational Programme”, which is financed by structural funds from the European Union and the state budget of the Czech Republic.
- 2.Busé R, Mombelli D, Mapelli C (2014) Metals recovery from furnaces dust: Waelz process. La Metallurgia Italiana 106(5):19–27Google Scholar
- 3.Schneeberger G, Antrekowitsch J (2011) New developments in the recycling of zinc containing dusts from steel and foundry industry, European metallurgical conference, EMC 2011, Düsseldorf, 2011. Germany, EUGoogle Scholar
- 12.Li G, Wang D, Chen Z (2009) Direct reduction of solid Fe2O3 in molten CaCl2 by potentially green process. J Mater Sci Technol (Shenyang) 25:767–771Google Scholar
- 14.Švancara I, Kalcher K, Walcarius A, Vytřas K (2012) Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes. In: Lochmüller CH (ed) Analytical chemistry. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- 21.Švancara I, Schachl K (1999) Testing of unmodified carbon paste electrodes. Chem List 93:490–499Google Scholar
- 23.Švancara I, Metelka R, Vytřas K (2005). Piston-driven carbon paste electrode holders for electrochemical measurements, sensing in Electroanalysis, Pardubice, 2005. Czech Republic, EUGoogle Scholar
- 26.Afraz A, Rafati AA, Najafi M (2014) Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 44:58–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Bachiller P, Lorenzo L, Tascón ML, Vásquez MD, Sánchez-Batanero P (1994) Electrochemical study of iron(II) and iron(III) compound mixtures in the solid state. Application to magnetite characterization. J Electroanal Chem 371(1–2):161–166Google Scholar