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Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 3443–3455 | Cite as

Effect of N-doping on hard carbon nano-balls as anode for Li-ion battery: improved hydrothermal synthesis and volume expansion study

  • Ashutosh Agrawal
  • K. Biswas
  • S. K. Srivastava
  • Sudipto Ghosh
Original Paper

Abstract

Using an improved single-step hydrothermal method, mesoporous hard carbon nano-balls, with nitrogen doping, have been successfully synthesized. These materials exhibit good reversible charge capacity during half-cell tests. Gravimetric capacity for undoped nano-sized and micron-sized mesoporous hard carbon balls is 506 and 475 mAh g−1, respectively. After nitrogen doping, the specific gravimetric capacities of both nano- and micron-sized carbon balls increase by 6.9 and 8%, respectively. Nitrogen doping enhances retention in specific capacity of both anode materials, particularly in nano-sized carbon balls with capacity retention of 83.9% after 100 cycles. The enhancement is attributed to a significant decrease in volume expansion due to the nitrogen doping. Density functional theory-based computation confirms the reduction of volume expansion by 60%. Improved electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped hard carbon is due to the drop in volume expansion rate during lithiation along with increased porosity and electronic conductivity. Furthermore, this one-step synthesis can be extended to other carbon sources to get nitrogen-doped hard carbon with sizes varying from micro to nano.

Keywords

Li-ion battery Nitrogen doping DFT simulation Volume expansion Carbonaceous anode 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge their affiliated institution, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, India, for providing the research facilities.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashutosh Agrawal
    • 1
  • K. Biswas
    • 1
  • S. K. Srivastava
    • 2
  • Sudipto Ghosh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia

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