Alachlor removal performance of Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 anodes prepared from ionic liquid solution
- 118 Downloads
Electrochemical processes have a considerable impact on the treatment of contaminated water and wastewater, since water reuse is becoming increasingly necessary. One of the most important variables in electrochemical degradation of organic substances is the electrode material. Several materials have been used successfully as anodes, highlighting those of boron-doped diamond and mixed metal oxide (MMO). The first one is characterized by the high generation of hydroxyl radicals while the second is well known for generating different oxidant species depending on the electrolyte solution composition. The present work aims to develop MMO anodes through thermal decomposition using 1-butylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate, an ionic liquid, as solvent in the precursor solution preparation. The ionic liquid prepared anodes characterization was performed by different techniques such as, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry, and their electrocatalytic performance was evaluated by the electrochemical degradation of alachlor. The commercial electrode presented larger internal area than the electrodes produced by the alternative method, but its efficiency was ca. 16% lower and its energy consumption was 16% higher than the laboratory-made electrode and calcined at 550 °C. Based on SEM results, this behavior can be attributed to the distribution of RuO2 on the surface of the laboratory-made electrodes in comparison to the commercial one. Furthermore, the ionic liquid prepared electrodes showed an increase at least 8% in the voltammetric charge in the stability tests.
KeywordsMixed metal oxide Ionic liquids Organochlorine pollutants Electrochemical degradation Alachlor
Ionic liquid prepared electrode
The authors thank the financial support from São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Sergipe State Research and Technological Innovation Foundation (FAPITEC/SE), the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq: 130849/2016-2, 304419/2015-0, 140669/2014-0 and 310282/2013-6).
- 5.Verhaert V, Newmark N, D'Hollander W, Covaci A, Vlok W, Wepener V, Addo-Bediako A, Jooste A, Teuchies J, Blust R, Bervoets L (2017) Persistent organic pollutants in the Olifants River Basin, South Africa: Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer through a subtropical aquatic food web. Sci Total Environ 586:792–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Human Health - water ingestion only Fact Sheet for Alachlor: (Human Health Carcinogen - water ingestion only), New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (1998) US EPA https://www.epa.gov/gliclearinghouse/human-health-water-ingestion-only-fact-sheet-alachlor-human-health-carcinogen-water. Accessed 28 Apr 2017
- 9.What substances are banned and authorised in the EU market? http://www.pan-europe.info/old/Archive/About%20pesticides/Banned%20and%20authorised.htm. Accessed 15 May 2017
- 11.Crawford G, Hurrel P, Paroschy K, Pereira C (2017) Pharmaceuticals and other endocrine disrupting compounds in natural water systems. Muskoka Watershed Council, BracebridgeGoogle Scholar
- 25.Souza FL, Aquino JM, Miwa DW, Rodrigo MA, Motheo AJ (2014) Electrochemical degradation of dimethyl phthalate ester on a DSA® electrode. J Braz Chem Soc 25(3):492–501Google Scholar
- 30.Pechini MP (1963) Method of preparing lead and alkaline earth titanates and niobates and coating method using the same to form a capacitor. US Patent US3330697AGoogle Scholar
- 36.Wasserscheid P, Welton T (2008) Ionic liquids in synthesis. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
- 41.Meindersma GW, Maase M, de Haan AB (2012) In: Elvers B (ed-in-chief) Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, v. 19. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar