Nickel hydroxide obtained by high-temperature two-step synthesis as an effective material for supercapacitor applications
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Hybrid supercapacitors with nickel hydroxide electrode are widely used as modern power sources for electrovehicles, ignition of different electric engines, etc. Nickel hydroxide for supercapacitor use must satisfy special features which are quite different from those requested for battery application. The aim of this work is to improve the promising two-stage high-temperature method by altering hydrolysis condition (hot and cold) in order to obtain Ni(OH)2 with improved electrochemical activity. Ni(OH)2 samples have been investigated by PXRD, TG, DSC, SEM, TEM, cyclic voltammogramm, and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling. It has been established from PXRD, TG, and DSC analyses that material obtained by hydrolysis at high temperature is a highly crystalline β-Ni(OH)2 characterized by high thermal stability. Materials prepared by cold hydrolysis are a highly defective βbc-Ni(OH)2, with 6.3 % water content and a lower thermal stability. It has been shown that samples prepared by hot hydrolysis have a high redox reversibility and electrochemical cycling stability, but a lower electrochemical capacity. This suggests that the electrochemical processes are localized in the thin layer at the particle surface. Cyclic voltammograms of samples prepared by cold hydrolysis exhibit gradual activation of the active material, anyhow resulting in higher capacity. By means of the galvanostatic charge-discharge curves at different current densities, the specific capacities of the samples have been calculated. The sample prepared by cold hydrolysis has higher specific capacities than the sample prepared by hot hydrolysis.
KeywordsNickel hydroxide High-temperature two-stage synthesis Hot and cold hydrolysis Supercapacitor
This study was carried out in frame of an international collaboration agreement between University Montpellier (Montpellier, France), Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology (Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine), and Vyatka State University (Kirov, Russian Federation) no. 130585 from July 7, 2014. V.A. Kotok is grateful to the French Embassy in Kiev for its financial support.
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