Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 20, Issue 12, pp 3287–3302 | Cite as

Electrochemical characterization of biodeterioration of paint films containing cadmium yellow pigment

  • Annette S. Ortiz-Miranda
  • Antonio Doménech-Carbó
  • María Teresa Doménech-Carbó
  • Laura Osete-Cortina
  • Francisco M. Valle-Algarra
  • Fernando Bolívar-Galiano
  • Inés Martín-Sánchez
  • María del Mar López-Miras
Original Paper


The voltammetry of microparticles (VMP) methodology was used to characterize the biological attack of different bacteria and fungi to reconstructed egg tempera and egg–linseed oil emulsion paint films containing cadmium yellow (CdS), which mimic historical painting techniques. When these paint films are in contact with aqueous acetate buffer, different cathodic signals are observed. As a result of the crossing of VMP data with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), these voltammetric signals can be associated with the reduction of CdS and different complexes associated to the proteinaceous and fatty acid fractions of the binders. After biological attack with different fungi (Acremonium chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger, Mucor rouxii, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Trichoderma pseudokoningii) and bacteria (Arthrobacter oxydans, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Streptomyces cellulofans), the observed electrochemical signals experience specific modifications depending on the binder and the biological agent, allowing for an electrochemical monitoring of biological attack.


Electrochemistry Biodeterioration Cadmium sulfide Egg tempera Egg–oil emulsion FTIR 



This work has been performed by members of the microcluster Grupo de análisis científico de bienes culturales y patrimoniales y estudios de ciencia de la conservación (Ref. 1362) belonging to the Valencia International Campus of Excellence. Financial support is gratefully acknowledged from the Spanish “I+D+I MICINN” projects CTQ2014-53736-C3-1-P and CTQ2014-53736-C3-2-P supported by ERDF funds. The authors wish to thank Dr. José Luis Moya López and Mr. Manuel Planes Insausti (Microscopy Service of the Universitat Politècnica de València) for the technical support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette S. Ortiz-Miranda
    • 1
  • Antonio Doménech-Carbó
    • 2
  • María Teresa Doménech-Carbó
    • 1
  • Laura Osete-Cortina
    • 1
  • Francisco M. Valle-Algarra
    • 2
  • Fernando Bolívar-Galiano
    • 3
  • Inés Martín-Sánchez
    • 4
  • María del Mar López-Miras
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut de Restauració del PatrimoniUniversitat Politècnica de ValènciaValènciaSpain
  2. 2.Departament de Química AnalíticaUniversitat de ValènciaBurjassot, ValènciaSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de PinturaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Departamento de MicrobiologíaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain

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