There is a growing need for the electrode with high mass loading of active materials, where both high energy and high power densities are required, in current and near-future applications of supercapacitor. Here, an ultrathin Co3S4 nanosheet decorated electrode (denoted as Co3S4/NF) with mass loading of 6 mg cm−2 is successfully fabricated by using highly dispersive Co3O4 nanowires on Ni foam (NF) as template. The nanosheets contained lots of about 3∼5 nm micropores benefiting for the electrochemical reaction and assembled into a three-dimensional, honeycomb-like network with 0.5∼1 μm mesopore structure for promoting specific surface area of electrode. The improved electrochemical performance was achieved, including an excellent cycliability of 10,000 cycles at 10 A g−1 and large specific capacitances of 2415 and 1152 F g−1 at 1 and 20 A g−1, respectively. Impressively, the asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with the activated carbon (AC) and Co3S4/NF electrode exhibits a high energy density of 79 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 151 W kg−1, a high power density of 3000 W kg−1 at energy density of 30 Wh kg−1 and 73 % retention of the initial capacitance after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles at 2 A g−1. More importantly, the formation process of the ultrathin Co3S4 nanosheets upon reaction time is investigated, which is benefited from the gradual infiltration of sulfide ions and the template function of ultrafine Co3O4 nanowires in the anion-exchange reaction.
Supercapacitors High mass loading Ultrathin nanosheets Co3S4Superior cycling stability
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This work was supported by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC no. 21503102), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University (lzujbky-2014-189), the Science and Technology Program of Gansu Province of China (145RJZA176), and the National College Students’ Innovative Entrepreneurial Training Program of Lanzhou University (No. 201510730096).
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1.State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina