Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 2255–2263 | Cite as

Electrochemical deposition of silver/silver oxide on reduced graphene oxide for glucose sensing

  • Leila Shahriary
  • Anjali A. AthawaleEmail author
Original Paper


Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by modified Hummer’s method and converted to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by chemical method. GO and rGO were decorated with silver/silver oxide (Ag/Ag2O-GO and Ag/Ag2O-rGO) by electrochemical method without using any stabilizing agent. Structural and physiochemical properties of the products were investigated with the help of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and XRD confirmed the deposition of silver and silver oxide on the GO and rGO. Further, Ag/Ag2O-rGO was applied for amperometric sensing of glucose in alkaline solution due to the presence of a thin layer of silver on the surface of rGO. Current-time dynamic response at + 0.60 V step potential vs. Hg/HgO in NaOH (0.1 M) were recorded, and linear response was obtained (R 2 = 0.991) as a function of glucose concentration (0.2–8 mM), with a detection limit of 0.060 mM (S/N ratio 3) and sensitivity of 32 μAmM−1 cm−2. The signal corresponding to glucose was not seen to be affected due to interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid, and chloride ions present in the solution.


Graphene oxide Reduced Silver Electrochemical Glucose Sensor 



The authors gratefully acknowledge CNQS, the Department of Physics, and the University of Pune for XRD, SEM, and FTIR facilities.

Supplementary material

10008_2015_2865_MOESM1_ESM.docx (264 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 263 kb)


  1. 1.
    Zou YJ, Xiang CL, Sun LX, Xu F (2008) Glucose biosensor based on electrode position of platinum nanoparticles onto carbon nanotubes and immobilizing enzyme with chitosan-SiO2 sol-gel. Biosens Bioelectron 23:1010–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fatih Abasıyanık M, Senel M (2010) Immobilization of glucose oxidase on reagentless ferrocene-containing polythiophene derivative and its glucose sensing application. Electroanal Chem 639:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Qiu JD, Wang R, Liang RP, Xia XH (2009) Electrochemically deposited nanocomposite film of CS-Fc/Au NPs/GOx for glucose biosensor application. Biosens Bioelectron 24:2920–2925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cherevko S, Chung CH (2009) Gold nanowire array electrode for non-enzymatic voltammetric and amperometric glucose detection. Sens Actuators B Chem 142:216–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    El Khatib KM, Abdel Hameed RM (2011) Development of Cu2O/Carbon Vulcan XC-72 as non-enzymatic sensor for glucose determination. Biosens Bioelectron 26:3542–3548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Watanabe T, Einaga Y (2009) Design and fabrication of nickel micro disk-arrayed diamond electrodes for a non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on control of diffusion profiles. Biosens Bioelectron 24:2684–2689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xia C, Ning W (2010) A novel non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor modified with FeOOH nanowire. Electrochem Commun 12:1581–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Skou E (1997) The electrochemical oxidation of glucose on platinum-I. The oxidation in 1 M H2SO4. Electrochim Acta 22:313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marioli JM, Kuwana T (1992) Electrochemical characterization of carbohydrate oxidation at copper electrodes. Electrochim Acta 37:1187–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hocevar SB, Ogorevc B, Schachl K, Kalcher K (2004) Glucose microbiosensor based on MnO2 and glucose oxidase modified carbon fiber microelectrode. Electroanalysis 16:1711–1716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Luque GL, Rodnguez MC, Rivas GA (2005) Glucose biosensors based on the immobilization of copper oxide and glucose oxidase within a carbon paste matrix. Talanta 66:467–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Su C, Zhang C, Lu G, Ma C (2010) Nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles/mesoporous carbon matrix. Electroanalysis 22:1901–1905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qiu H, Huang X (2010) Effects of Pt decoration on the electrocatalytic activity of nanoporous gold electrode toward glucose and its potential application for constructing a nonenzymatic glucose sensor. Electroanal Chem 643:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Quan H, Park SU, Park J (2010) Electrochemical oxidation of glucose on silver nanoparticle-modified composite electrodes. Electrochim Acta 55:2232–2237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sun F, Li L, Liu P, Lian Y (2011) Nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor based on novel copper film. Electroanalysis 23:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gutes A, Carrari C, Maboudian R (2011) Nonenzymatic glucose sensing based on deposited palladium nanoparticles on epoxy-silver electrode. Electrochim Acta 56:5855–5859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li J, Yuan R, Chai Y, Che X, Li W, Zhong X (2011) Nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with chains of platinum hollow nanoparticles and porous gold nanoparticles in a chitosan membrane. Microchim Acta 172:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhuang Z, Su X, Yuan H, Sun Q, Xiao D (2008) An improved sensitivity non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on a CuO nanowire modified Cu electrode. Analyst 133:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rahman Md M, Ahmmad AJS, Jin JH, Ahn SJ, Lee JJ (2010) A comprehensive review of glucose biosensors based on nanostructured metal-oxides. Sensors 10:4855–4886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Biswas PC, Nodasaka Y, Enyo M, Haruta M (1995) Electro-oxidation of CO and methanol on graphite-based platinum electrodes combined with oxide-supported ultrafine gold particles. Electroanal Chem 381:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kurinawan F, Tsakova V, Mirsky M (2006) Gold nanoparticles in nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of sugars. Electrocatalysis 18:1937–1942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ye JS, Wen Y, Zhang WD, Gan LM, Xu GQ, Sheu FS (2004) Nonenzymatic glucose detection using multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes. Electrochem Commun 6:66–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lu J, Drzal LT, Worden RM, Lee I (2007) Simple fabrication of a highly sensitive glucose biosensor using enzymes immobilized in exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets nafion membrane. Chem Mater 19:62406Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Dommett GHB, Kohlhaas KM, Zimney EJ, Stach EA, Piner RD, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2006) Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442:282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Park S, Lee KS, Bozoklu G, Cai W, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2008) Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions-enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking. ACS Nano 2:572–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Geim AK (2009) Graphene: status and prospects. Science 324:1530–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Compton OC, Nguyen ST (2010) Graphene oxide, highly reduced graphene oxide, and graphene: versatile building blocks for carbon-based materials. Small 6:711–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Luo DC, Zhang GX, Liu JF, Sun XM (2011) Evaluation criteria for reduced graphene oxide. J Phys Chem C 115:11327–11335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang X, Dong X, Wen Y, Li C, Xiong Q, Chen PA (2012) graphene–cobalt oxide based needle electrode for non-enzymatic glucose detection in micro-droplets. Chem Commun 48:6490–6492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang Y, Wang Y, Jia J, Wanga J (2012) Nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on graphene oxide and electrospun NiO nanofibers. Sensors Actuators B 171–172:580–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luo L, Zhu L, Wang Z (2012) Nonenzymatic amperometric determination of glucose by CuO nanocubes–graphene nanocomposite modified electrode. Bioelectrochemistry 88:156–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kazemi Movahed S, Fakharian M, Dabiri M, Bazgir A (2014) Gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide sheets with significantly high catalytic activity for ullmann homocoupling. RSC Adv 4:5243–5247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu S, Yan J, He G, Zhong D, Chen J, Shi L, Zhou X, Jiang H (2012) Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films of reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles for the electrochemical detection of dopamine. Electroanal Chem 672:40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Deng KQ, Zhou JH, Li XF (2013) Direct electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its application to determination of L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 101:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dey RS, Raj CR (2010) Development of an amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrid material. J Phys Chem C 114:21427–21433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Krishnamoorthy K, Mohan R, Kim SJ (2011) Graphene oxide as a photocatalytic material. Appl Phys Lett 98:244101–244103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Piner RD, Kohlhaas KA, Kleinhammes A, Jia Y, Wu Y, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2007) Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon 45:1558–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lucas CH, López-Peinado AJ, López-González JD, RojasCervantes ML, Martín-Aranda RM (1995) Study of oxygen-containing groups in a series of graphite oxides: physical and chemical characterization. Carbon 33:1585–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jeong HK, Lee YP, Lahaye RJWE, Park MH, An KH, Kim IJ, Yang CW, Park CY, Ruoff RS, Lee YH (2008) Evidence of graphitic AB stacking order of graphite oxides. J Am Chem Soc 130:1362–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schniepp HC, Li JL, McAllister MJ, Sai H, Herrera-Alonso M, Adamson DH, Prud’homme RK, Car R, Saville DA, Aksay IA (2006) Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide. J Phys Chem B 110:8535–8539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    McAllister MJ, LiO JL, Adamson DH, Schniepp HC, Abdala AA, Liu J, Herrera-Alonso M, Milius DL, CarO R, Prud’homme RK, Aksay IA (2007) Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite. Chem Mater 19:4396–4404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Reetz MT, Helbig W (1994) Size-selective synthesis of nanostructured transition metal clusters. J Am Chem Soc 116:1401–1402Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Luo Z, Lu Y, Somers LA, Johnson ATC (2009) High yield preparation of macroscopic graphene oxide membranes. J Am Chem Soc 131:898–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stonehart P, Portante FP (1968) Potentiodynamic examination of surface processes and kinetics for the Ag2O/Ag2O/OH-. Electrochim Acta 13:1805–1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tougas TP, Debenedetto MJ, DeMott JM (1993) Postchromatographic electrochemical detection of carbohydrates at a silver oxide electrode. Electroanalysis 5:669–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jue L, Drzal LT, Worden RM, Lee I (2007) Simple fabrication of a highly sensitive glucose biosensor using enzymes immobilized in exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets nafion nembrane. Chem Mater 19:6240–6246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Park S, Chung TD, Kim HC (2003) Nonenzymatic glucose detection using mesoporous platinum. Anal Chem 75:3046–3349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chao M, Ma X, Li X (2012) Graphene-modified electrode for the selective determination of uric acid under coexistence of dopamine and ascorbic acid. Int J Electrochem Sci 7:2201–2213Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zen JM, Hsu CT (1998) A selective voltammetric method for uric acid detection at Nafion®-coated carbon paste electrodes. Talanta 46:1363–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of PunePuneIndia

Personalised recommendations