Effect of the resorcinol/catalyst ratio in the capacitive performance of carbon xerogels with potential use in sodium chloride removal from saline water
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Carbon xerogels were prepared by the resorcinol–formaldehyde method as potential electrodes for the electroadsorption of sodium chloride from aqueous solution. This work evidences the relevance of the resorcinol-to-catalyst (R/C) ratio employed during the synthesis in the capacitive properties of these carbon xerogels. Raman spectra revealed a significant increase of the structural ordering from R/C = 355 to 480, while an opposite trend was detected for R/C = 500. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed an increase in the contribution of hydroxyl groups for those xerogels with a less ordered structure. Similarly, surface area and micropore volume showed a maximum for R/C = 480. The textural changes fairly matched with capacitance values recorded by cyclic voltammetry. Thus, a value as high as 89 F g−1 was recorded for R/C = 480, which was confirmed by a higher electrosorption capacity of 0.1 mmol of NaCl g−1 as compared to only 0.087 and 0.07 mmol g−1 for R/C = 355 and 500, respectively. Also, a low internal resistance was determined for CXG480, revealing the optimized properties achieved for the xerogel with intermediate resorcinol/catalyst ratio.
KeywordsCarbon Xerogel Voltammetry Deionization Impedance
The authors are indebted to the MICINN (Contract IPT-2011-1450-310000 (ADECAR)) and Junta de Andalucía (Research group FQM-288) for the financial support. We also thank the fruitful collaboration of Isolux Ingeniería, S.A., Fundación Imdea Energía and Proingesa.
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