Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 18, Issue 11, pp 3091–3097 | Cite as

Anodic polarization of nanocrystalline titanium

  • Marta ZwolińskaEmail author
  • Kamil Załęgowski
  • Agata Roguska
  • Halina Garbacz
  • Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski
Original Paper


TiO2 nanotubes are extensively investigated because of their unique properties and wide range of applications, e.g., in biomedicine. They are used as coatings on titanium implant materials accelerating osteoblast (bone cell) adhesion and improving osteointegration. Owing to its high mechanical properties, nanocrystalline titanium is likely to replace the widely used titanium alloys, which contains harmful ions such as V and Al. The performance properties of nanocrystalline titanium can be modified by subjecting it to various surface treatments tailored to the demands of a given application. The aim of this study is to determine whether the grain refinement of the titanium substrate has an influence on the formation of TiO2 nanotubes. The TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated by anodic polarization of micro- and nanotitanium at a constant voltage of 10, 15, and 20 V for 2 h in an electrolyte containing fluoride ions. The nanocrystalline bulk titanium (grade 2) with grain size of about 90 nm and high density of dislocations was obtained using hydrostatic extrusion. Commercially available coarse-grained titanium with grain size of 20 μm was used as a reference sample. The microstructure of the fabricated nanotubular layers was revealed using scanning electron microscopy and focus ion beam microscopy. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical composition of the fabricated layers. The results indicate that grain refinement influences the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes while their chemistry remains unchanged.


Nanocrystalline titanium Anodization Nanotubes Biotechnology 



This work was carried out under the project NN 507 22 64 40.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Zwolińska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kamil Załęgowski
    • 1
  • Agata Roguska
    • 2
  • Halina Garbacz
    • 1
  • Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Materials Science and EngineeringWarsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Physical ChemistryPolish Academy of ScienceWarsawPoland

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