Advertisement

Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 18, Issue 7, pp 1815–1822 | Cite as

Clopyralid detection by using a molecularly imprinted electrochemical luminescence sensor based on the “gate-controlled” effect

  • Xue Li
  • Jianping LiEmail author
  • Weiling Yin
  • Lianming Zhang
Original Paper

Abstract

A new strategy for trace analysis was proposed by preparing a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sensor. The template molecules of clopyralid were determined based on “gate-controlled” electrochemiluminescence (ECL) measurement. A dense polymer film was electropolymerized on an electrode surface to fabricate the MIP–ECL sensor. The process of template elution and rebinding acted as a gate to control the flux of probes, which pass through the cavities and react on the electrode surface. ECL measurement was conducted in the luminol–H2O2 system. A linear relationship between ECL intensity and clopyralid concentrations in the range of 1 × 10−9 mol/L to 8 × 10−7 mol/L exists, and the detection limit was 3.7 × 10−10 mol/L. The prepared sensor was used to detect clopyralid in vegetables. Recoveries of 97.9 % to 102.9 % were obtained. The sensor showed highly selective recognition, high sensitivity, good stability, and reproducibility for clopyralid detection.

Keywords

Molecularly imprinted sensors Gate controlled Electrochemical luminescence Clopyralid 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21375031 and No. 21165007).

References

  1. 1.
    Thorsness KB, Messersmith CG (1991) Clopyralid influences rotational crops. Weed Technol 5:159–164Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmad R, Rahman A, Holland PT, McNaughton DE (2003) Improved analytical procedure for determination of clopyralid in soil using gas chromatography. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 71:414–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schütz S, Weißbecker B, Hummel HE (1996) Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the herbicide clopyralid in differentially cultivated soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:249–252Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gu B, Meldrum B, McCabe T, Phillips S (2012) Enhancing concentration and mass sensitivities for liquid chromatography trace analysis of clopyralid in drinking water. J Sep Sci 35:185–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schütz S, Vedder H, Düring RA, Weissbecker B, Hummel HE (1996) Analysis of the herbicide clopyralid in cultivated soils. J Chromatogr A 754:265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fillâtre Y, Rondeau D, Bonnet B, Daguin A, Jadas-Hécart A, Communal PY (2011) Multiresidue analysis of multiclass pesticides in lavandin essential oil by LC/MS/MS using the scheduled selected reaction monitoring mode. Anal Chem 83:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wulff G (1995) Molecular imprinting in cross-linked materials with the aid of molecular templates—a way towards artificial antibodies. Angew Chem Int Ed 34:1812–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vlatakis G, Andersson LI, Müller R, Mosbach K (1993) Drug assay using antibody mimics made by molecular imprinting. Nature 361:645–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mosbach K (1994) Molecular imprinting. Trends Biochem Sci 19:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alizadeh T, Zare M, Ganjali MR, Norouzi P, Tavana B (2010) A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based electrochemical sensor for monitoring 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in natural waters and soil samples. Biosens Bioelectron 25:1166–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dickert FL, Tortschanoff M, Bulst WE, Fischerauer G (1999) Molecularly imprinted sensor layers for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. Anal Chem 71:4559–4563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang YT, Zhang ZQ, Jain V, Yi JJ, Mueller S, Sokolov J, Liu ZX, Levon K, Rigas B, Rafailovich MH (2010) Potentiometric sensors based on surface molecular imprinting: detection of cancer biomarkers and viruses. Sens Actuators B 146:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miyata T, Hayashi T, Kuriu Y, Uragami T (2012) Responsive behavior of tumor-marker-imprinted hydrogels using macromolecular cross-linkers. J Mol Recognit 25:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aghaei A, Milani Hosseini MR, Najafi M (2010) A novel capacitive biosensor for cholesterol assay that uses an electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer. Electrochim Acta 55:1503–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Najafi M, Baghbanan AA (2012) Capacitive chemical sensor for thiopental assay based on electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer. Electroanalysis 24:1236–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sergeyeva TA, Piletsky SA, Brovko AA, Slinchenko EA, Sergeeva LM, El’skaya AV (1999) Selective recognition of atrazine by molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Development of conductometric sensor for herbicides detection. Anal Chim Acta 392:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li JP, Li YP, Zhang Y, Wei G (2012) Highly sensitive molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on the double amplification by an inorganic Prussian blue catalytic polymer and the enzymatic effect of glucose oxidase. Anal Chem 84:1888–1893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li JP, Jiang FY, Wei XP (2010) Molecularly imprinted sensor based on an enzyme amplifier for ultratrace oxytetracycline determination. Anal Chem 82:6074–6078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Song W, Chen Y, Xu J, Yang XR, Tian DB (2010) Dopamine sensor based on molecularly imprinted electrosynthesized polymers. J Solid State Electrochem 14:1909–1914Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liang R, Zhang R, Qin W (2009) Potentiometric sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer for determination of melamine in milk. Sens Actuators B 141:544–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xue C, Han Q, Wang Y, Wu JH, Wen TT, Wang RY, Hong JL, Zhou XM, Jiang HJ (2013) Amperometric detection of dopamine in human serum by electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles doped molecularly imprinted polymers. Biosens Bioelectron 49:199–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Richter MM (2004) Electrochemiluminescence (ECL). Chem Rev 104:3003–3036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blackburn GF, Shah HP, Kenten JH, Leland J, Kamin RA, Link J, Peterman J, Powell MJ, Shah A, Talley DB (1991) Electrochemiluminescence detection for development of immunoassays and DNA probe assays for clinical diagnostics. Clin Chem 37:1534–1539Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li JP, Li SH, Wei XP, Tao HL, Pan HC (2012) Molecularly imprinted electrochemical luminescence sensor based on signal amplification for selective determination of trace gibberellin A3. Anal Chem 84:9951–9955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li X, Zhang LM, Wei XP, Li JP (2013) A sensitive and renewable chlortoluron molecularly imprinted polymer sensor based on the gate-controlled catalytic electrooxidation of H2O2 on magnetic nano-NiO. Electroanalysis 25:1286–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yoshimi Y, Ohdaira R, Iiyama C, Sakai K (2001) “Gate effect” of thin layer of molecularly-imprinted poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate). Sens Actuators B 73:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sekine S, Watanabe Y, Yoshimi Y, Hattori K, Sakai K (2007) Influence of solvents on chiral discriminative gate effect of molecularly imprinted poly (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid). Sens Actuators B 127:512–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhao P, Wang L, Chen L, Pan C (2011) Residue dynamics of clopyralid and picloram in rape plant rapeseed and field soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 86:78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang L, Lian J (2008) The electrochemical polymerization of o-phenylenediamine on L-tyrosine functionalized glassy carbon electrode and its application. J Solid State Electrochem 12:757–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Razmi H, Habibi E (2009) Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on carbon ceramic electrode modified by platinum nanoparticles incorporated in poly (o-phenylenediamine) film. J Solid State Electrochem 13:1897–1904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gajendran P, Saraswathi R (2013) Electrocatalytic performance of poly (o-phenylenediamine)-Pt–Ru nanocomposite for methanol oxidation. J Solid State Electrochem 17:2741–2747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sakura S (1992) Electrochemiluminescence of hydrogen peroxide–luminol at a carbon electrode. Anal Chim Acta 262:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xue Li
    • 1
  • Jianping Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Weiling Yin
    • 1
  • Lianming Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Biological EngineeringGuilin University of TechnologyGuilinPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations