Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 1563–1570 | Cite as

ToF-secondary ion mass-spectrometric study of copper deposition and stripping on directly heated screen-printed gold electrodes

  • Aly M. Hafez
  • Ulrike Koch
  • Gerd-Uwe FlechsigEmail author
Original Paper


We report about a new kind of directly heated gold electrode. All electrodes including a directly heated gold loop electrode, a Ag pseudo reference, and a carbon counter electrode have been screen-printed on a ceramic alumina substrate. Thermal behaviour was studied by potentiometry using either an external or the integrated reference electrode. Stripping voltammetric copper signals were greatly improved at elevated deposition temperature. Secondary ion mass spectrometric studies (ToF-SIMS) revealed that different negative ionic species of copper complexes can be found on the gold electrode surface as a result of ion bombardment during SIMS analysis like Cu, CuCl and CuCl2 . SIMS surface imaging using a fine focussed ion beam over the surface allowed us to obtain ion images (chemical maps) of the analyzed sample. SIMS depth profile analysis of the gold loop electrode was performed after copper deposition at room temperature (23 °C) and at 60 °C. CuCl2 ion was used for the depth profile studies as it has shown the highest intensity among other observed species. Surface spectroscopic analysis, surface imaging and depth profile analysis have shown that the amount of deposited copper species on the gold loop electrode was increased upon increasing electrode temperature during the deposition step. Therefore, the presence of chloride in the solution will hinder underpotential deposition of Cu(0) and lead to badly defined and resolved stripping peaks.


Heated gold electrode Stripping voltammetry Potentiometry Copper Time of Flight, ToF Secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS 



The authors are grateful for the financial support (DFG Heisenberg fellowship FL 384/7-2).

Supplementary material

10008_2013_2083_MOESM1_ESM.doc (339 kb)
ESM 1 Supporting information is available online: Fig. S1 displaying calibration plots and LODs measured by DP-stripping voltammetry at −0.5 V deposition potential in the range from 0 to 1,000 ppb Cu. (DOC 339 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aly M. Hafez
    • 1
  • Ulrike Koch
    • 1
  • Gerd-Uwe Flechsig
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiologyUniversity of SiegenSiegenGermany
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of RostockRostockGermany
  3. 3.Gensoric GmbHRostockGermany

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