Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 2121–2126 | Cite as

Formation of two-dimensional (2D) lead dendrites by application of different regimes of electrolysis

  • Nebojša D. Nikolić
  • Goran Branković
  • Uroš Č. Lačnjevac
Original Paper


Electrodeposition of lead from nitrate electrolyte in constant regimes of electrolysis was analyzed and the obtained powder lead deposits were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Polarization curve for lead electrodeposition consisted of two parts separated by an inflection point. The first part of the polarization curve was characterized by a linear dependence of the current density on overpotential. The linear part of the polarization curve corresponded to ohmic-controlled electrodeposition and single lead crystals were formed in this range of overpotentials. A rapid increase in the current density with increasing overpotential was observed after the inflection point (the second part of the polarization curve). Two-dimensional dendrites were the dominant morphological forms obtained at overpotentials and current densities belonging to the second part of the polarization curve, indicating that the rapid increase of the current density with increasing overpotential corresponded to activation controlled electrodeposition at the tips of the formed dendrites. Comparing the morphologies of the obtained lead deposits with those belonging to the same group of metals (metals characterized by a high exchange current density), such as silver, cadmium, and tin, a strong dependence between the nucleation type and the shape of dendrites for the metals belonging to the same group was established.


Electrodeposition Lead Powder Dendrites Scanning electron microscope (SEM) 



The authors are grateful to Prof. Dr. Konstantin I. Popov for helpful discussion during the preparation of this paper. The work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia under the research project: “Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of nanostructured functional materials for application in new technologies” (no. 172046).


  1. 1.
    Pavlov D (1993) Premature capacity loss (PCL) of the positive lead/acid battery plate: a new concept to describe the phenomenon. J Power Sourc 42:345–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rashkova B, Guel B, Potzschke RT, Staikov G, Lorenz WJ (1998) Electrodeposition of Pb on n-Si(111). Electrochim Acta 43:3021–3028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ehlers C, Konig U, Staikov G, Schultze JW (2002) Role of surface states in electrodeposition of Pb on n-Ge(111). Electrochim Acta 47:379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Avellaneda CO, Napolitano MA, Kaibara EK, Bulhoes LOS (2005) Electrodeposition of lead on ITO electrode: influence of copper as an additive. Electrochim Acta 50:1317–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doulakas L, Novy K, Stucki S, Comninellis Ch (2000) Recovery of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn from synthetic mixture by selective electrodeposition in chloride solution. Electrochim Acta 46:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scharifker B, Hills G (1983) Theoretical and experimental studies of multiple nucleation. Electrochim Acta 28:879–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mostany J, Parra J, Scharifker BR (1986) The nucleation of lead from halide-containing solutions. J Appl Electrochem 16:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Popov KI, Krstajić NV, Pantelić RM, Popov SR (1985) Dendritic electocrystallizaion of lead from lead nitrate solution. Surf Tech 26:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Exposito E, Gonzalez-Garcıa J, Bonete P, Montiel V, Aldaz A (2000) Lead electrowinning in a fluoborate medium. Use of hydrogen diffusion anodes. J Power Sourc 87:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Popov KI, Stojilković ER, Radmilović V, Pavlović MG (1997) Morphology of lead dendrites electrodeposited by square-wave pulsating overpotential. Powder Technol 93:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ghergari L, Oniciu L, Muresan L, Pantea A, Topan VA, Ghertoiu D (1991) Effect of additives on the morphology of lead electrodeposits. J Electroanal Chem 313:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Muresan L, Oniciu L, Froment M, Maurin G (1992) Inhibition of lead electrocrystallization by organic additives. Electrochim Acta 37:2249–2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Muresan L, Oniciu L, Wiart R (1993) On the kinetics of lead electrodeposition in fluorosilicate electrolyte Part I: inhibiting effect of sodium lignin sulphonate. J Appl Electrochem 23:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Muresan L, Oniciu L, Wiart R (1994) Kinetics of lead deposition in fluorosilicate electrolyte Part II: inhibiting effect of horse-chestnut extract (HCE) and of sodium lignin sulphonate-HCE mixtures. J Appl Electrochem 24:332–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carlos IA, Malaquias MA, Oizumi MM, Matsuo TT (2001) Study of the influence of glycerol on the cathodic process of lead electrodeposition and on its morphology. J Power Sourc 92:56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wong SM, Abrantes LM (2005) Lead electrodeposition from very alkaline media. Electrochim Acta 51:619–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carlos IA, Siqueira JLP, Finazzi GA, de Almeida MRH (2003) Voltammetric study of lead electrodeposition in the presence of sorbitol and morphological characterization. J Power Sourc 117:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghali E, Girgis M (1985) Electrodeposition of lead from aqueous acetate and chloride solutions. Metall Mater Trans B 16:489–496Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Calusaru R (1979) Electrodeposition of metal powders. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 351Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pavlović MG, Hadžismajlović DžE, Toperić BV, Popov KI (1992) Electrochemical deposition on lead powder by reversing current. J Serb Chem Soc 57:687–696Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cherevko S, Xing X, Chung C-H (2011) Hydrogen template assisted electrodeposition of sub-micrometer wires composing honeycomb-like porous Pb films. Appl Surf Sci 257:8054–8061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vijh AK, Randin JP (1977) Some factors determining the rates of electrochemical dissolution-deposition reactions on metallic surfaces. Surf Tech 5:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Popov KI, Živković PM, Krstić SB, Nikolić ND (2009) Polarization curves in the ohmic controlled electrodeposition of metals. Electrochim Acta 54:2924–2931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Popov KI, Živković PM, Nikolić ND (2010) The effect of morphology of activated electrodes on their electrochemical activity. In: Djokić SS (ed) Electrodeposition: theory and practice, series: modern aspects of electrochemistry, vol 48. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 163–213Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bockris JO’M, Reddy AKN, Gamboa-Aldeco M (2000) Modern electrochemistry 2A, fundamentals of electrodics, 2nd edn. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, p 1107Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wranglen G (1960) Dendrites and growth layers in the electrocrystallization of metals. Electrochim Acta 2:130–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Popov KI, Djokić SS, Grgur BN (2002) Fundamental aspects of electrometallurgy. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 78–89Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Despić AR, Popov KI (1972) Transport controlled deposition and dissolution of metals. In: Conway BE, Bockris JO’M (eds) Modern aspects of electrochemistry, vol 7. Plenum, New York, pp 199–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Diggle JW, Despić AR, Bockris JO’M (1969) The mechanism of the dendritic electrocrystallization of zinc. J Electrochem Soc 116:1503–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Popov KI, Krstajić NV, Cekerevac MI (1996) The mechanism of formation of coarse and disperse electrodeposits. In: White RE, Conway BE, Bockris JO’M (eds) Modern aspects of electrochemistry, vol 30. Plenum, New York, pp 261–312Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Popov KI, Pavlović MG, Stojilković ER, Radmilović V (1996) Silver powder electrodeposition by constant and pulsating overpotential. J Serb Chem Soc 61:47–55Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maksimović VM, Pavlović MG, Pavlović LjJ, Tomić MV, Jović VD (2007) Morphology and growth of electrodeposited silver powder particles. Hydrometallurgy 86:22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Popov KI, Pavlović MG, Jovićević JN (1989) Morphology of tin powder particles obtained in electrodeposition on copper cathode by constant and square-wave pulsating overpotential from Sn(II) alkaline solution. Hydrometallurgy 23:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cherevko S, Chung C-H (2011) Direct electrodeposition of nanoporous gold with controlled multimodal pore size distribution. Electrochem Commun 13:16–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nikolić ND, Popov KI, Pavlović LjJ, Pavlović MG (2007) Determination of critical conditions for the formation of electrodeposited copper structures suitable for electrodes in electrochemical devices. Sensors 7:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nikolić ND, Pavlović LjJ, Pavlović MG, Popov KI (2008) Morphologies of electrochemically formed copper powder particles and their dependence on the quantity of evolved hydrogen. Powder Technol 185:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nikolić ND, Popov KI (2010) Hydrogen co-deposition effects on the structure of electrodeposited copper. In: Djokić SS (eds) Electrodeposition: theory and practice, series: modern aspects of electrochemistry, vol 48. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–70Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nebojša D. Nikolić
    • 1
  • Goran Branković
    • 2
  • Uroš Č. Lačnjevac
    • 2
  1. 1.ICTM-Institute of ElectrochemistryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Institute for Multidisciplinary ResearchUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations