Morphology and internal structure of copper deposits electrodeposited by the pulsating current regime in the hydrogen co-deposition range
- 204 Downloads
The effect of the regime of pulsating current (PC) on copper electrodeposition in the hydrogen co-deposition range was examined by the techniques of scanning electron and optical microscopes. The quantities of evolved hydrogen and morphologies of electrodeposited copper strongly depended on the applied parameters of square waves PC, such as the current density amplitude (or the amplitude of the cathodic current density), deposition pulse, and pause duration. The increase of the current density amplitude led to intensification of hydrogen evolution reaction, and the change of morphology of electrodeposited copper from dendrites and shallow holes to dish-like holes was observed. For the constant pause duration, the prolonging deposition pulses intensify hydrogen evolution reaction leading to the formation of the honeycomb-like structures. The set of modified equations considering the effect of hydrogen generated during metal electrodeposition processes by the pulsating current regime is also presented. The concept of “effective overpotential amplitude” was proposed to explain the change of copper surface morphology with the intensification of hydrogen evolution reaction.
KeywordsElectrodeposition Copper Hydrogen Pulsating current Scanning electron microscope (SEM) Optical microscope
The authors are grateful to Prof. Dr. Konstantin I. Popov for helpful discussion during the preparation of this paper. The work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia under the research project: “Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of nanostructured functional materials for application in new technologies” (No. 172046).
- 1.Nikolić ND, Popov KI (2010) Hydrogen co-deposition effects on the structure of electrodeposited copper. In: Djokić SS (ed) Modern aspects of electrochemistry, electrodeposition: theory and practice, vol 48. Springer, New York, pp 1–70Google Scholar
- 24.Popov KI, Maksimović MD (1989) Theory of the effect of electrodeposition at a periodically changing rate on the morphology of metal deposits. In: Conway BE, Bockris JO’M, White RE (eds) Modern aspects of electrochemistry, vol 19. Plenum, New York, pp 193–250Google Scholar
- 28.Popov KI, Djokić SS, Grgur BN (2002) Fundamental aspects of electrometallurgy. Kluwer Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 30.Dima GE, De Vooys ACA, Koper MTM (2003) J Electroanal Chem 554–555:15–23Google Scholar