Application of pulsating overpotential regime on the formation of copper deposits in the range of hydrogen co-deposition
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Electrodeposition of copper by pulsating overpotential (PO) regime in the range of hydrogen co-deposition was examined by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the increase of the pause-to-pulse ratio produced a strong effect on the morphology of electrodeposited copper. Honeycomb-like copper structures were formed with the pause-to-pulse ratios up to 5. Up to this value of the pause-to-pulse ratio, the diameter of the holes formed by attached hydrogen bubbles was decreasing, while their number was increasing by the application of PO regime. The compactness of the formed honeycomb-like structures was also increasing with the increasing pause duration. The increase of the pause-to-pulse ratio suppressed a coalescence of neighboring hydrogen bubbles. Copper dendrites in the interior of the holes and at their shoulders were formed with the higher pause-to-pulse ratios. The size of the formed dendrites, as well as their number, increased with the increasing pause duration. Depth of holes was decreasing with the increasing pause duration. The increased compactness of the obtained structures was explained by the use of a set of equations describing the effect of square-wave PO on electrodeposition process.
KeywordsElectrodeposition Copper Hole Dendrites Pulsating overpotential Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
The work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia under the research project: “Deposition of ultrafine powders of metals and alloys and nanostructured surfaces by electrochemical techniques” (no. 142032G).
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