Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 585–591

Electrochemical and structural characterization of lithium titanate electrodes

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10008-009-0815-4

Cite this article as:
Liu, P., Sherman, E. & Verbrugge, M. J Solid State Electrochem (2010) 14: 585. doi:10.1007/s10008-009-0815-4


Lithium titanate (LTO) materials of different particle size, surface area, and morphology were characterized by constant current cycling and cyclic voltammetry. By examining the particles and electrodes with scanning electron microscopy, we show that particle morphology, in addition to particle size, has important implications for high-rate performance. Large agglomerates, even when porous and made of small crystallites, cannot effectively form homogenous electrodes with the polymer binder and carbon conducting diluents; hence, low power performance results. Another nanostructured LTO of very high surface area was found to have poor electrochemical performance most likely due to its high concentration of structural defects. We recommend further development in nanoparticles of LTO of optimal crystallinity as well as improved electrode homogeneity through the use of more compatible binders and conducting diluents and better electrode processing techniques. Simultaneous realization of these imperatives should facilitate the development of LTO-based high-power batteries for automotive applications.


Lithium ion battery Anode material Lithium titanate Scanning electron microscopy Nanoparticle 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HRL Laboratories LLCMalibuUSA
  2. 2.General Motors CorporationWarrenUSA

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