The influence of the surface preparation on the electrodeposition of gold particles on silicon

  • K. De Henau
  • I. Huygens
  • K. StrubbeEmail author
Original Paper


In a systematical study of the electrodeposition of gold (I) on silicon (100), the influence of the surface preparation on the nucleation behavior of gold was investigated. A two-phase experimental design was used. In the first phase, it was investigated whether there is an influence; in the second phase, an optimization was performed. It was found that more homogeneous particle coverages and higher particle densities can be obtained when the surface is dipped in an acid fluoride solution with small nitric acid to hydrogen fluoride proportions. Furthermore, the observations indicated that more negative deposition potentials also lead to better coverages, higher densities, and less clustering.


Electrochemical deposition Gold Silicon Surface preparation 



The authors would like to thank the IWT (Instituut voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie)—Flanders (SBO project 060031) and Ghent University (BOF project 05B02406) for the financial support. IMEC (Leuven, Belgium) is gratefully acknowledged for the wafer supply and SEM imaging.


  1. 1.
    Sivakov V, Andrä G, Himcinschi C, Gösele U, Zahn DRT, Christiansen S (2006) Appl Phys A 85:311–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hannon JB, Kodambaka S, Ross FM, Tromp RM (2006) Nature Lett 440:69–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wagner RS, Ellis WC (1964) Appl Phys Lett 4:89–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meng CY, Shih BL, Lee SC (2007) J Nanopart Res 9:657–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cui Y, Lauhon LJ, Gudiksen MS, Wang J, Lieber CM (2001) Appl Phys Lett 78:2214–2216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yoon M, Lin XF, Chizhov I, Mai H, Willis RF (2001) Phys Rev B 64:85321–1–85321-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen M, Horn RG (2007) J Colloid Interface Sci 315:814–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kozhevin VM, Yavsin DA, Kouznetsov VM, Busov VM, Mikushkin VM, Nikonov SY, Kolobov A, Gurevich SA (2000) J Vac Sci Technol B 18:1402–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oskam G, Long JG, Natarajan A, Searson PC (1998) J Phys D Appl Phys 31:1927–1949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pletcher D (1991) A first course in electrode processes. The Electrochemical Consultancy (Ramsey) Ltd, HantsGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Munford ML, Maroun F, Cortès R, Allongue P, Pasa AA (2003) Surf Sci 537:95–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang XG (2001) Electrochemistry of Silicon and its Oxide. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Higashi GS, Chabal YJ, Trucks GW, Raghavachari K (1990) Appl Phys Lett 56:656–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takahagi T, Ishitani A, Kuroda H, Nagasawa Y (1991) J Appl Phys 69:803–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sunada T, Yasaka T, Takakura M, Sugiyama T, Miyazaki S, Hirose M (1990) Jap J Appl Phys 29:L2408–L2410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robbins HR, Schwartz B (1959) J Electrochem Soc 106:505–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Turner DR (1960) J Electrochem Soc 107:810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu Z, Sun T, An J Wang J (2007) J Electrochem Soc 154:D21–D29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scharifker B, Mostany J (1984) J Electroanal Chem 177:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scharifker B, Hills GJ (1983) Electrochim Acta 28:879–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gunawardena GA, Hills GJ, Montenegro I (1978) Electrochim Acta 23:693–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gunawardena GA, Hills GJ, Montenegro I, Scharifker B (1982) J Electroanal Chem 138:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kutner MH, Nachtsheim CJ, Neter J, Li W (2005) Applied linear statistical models, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oskam G, Searson PC (2000) Surf Sci 446:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oskam G, Searson PC (2000) J Electrochem Soc 147:2199–2205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vereecken PM, Strubbe K, Gomes WP (1997) J Electroanal Chem 433:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Milchev A (2002) Electrocrystallization. Kluwer Academic, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fukidome H, Ohno T, Matsumura M (1997) J Electrochem Soc 144:679–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hu SM, Kerr DR (1967) J Electrochem Soc 114:414–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Willeke G, Kellermann K (1996) Semicond Sci Technol 11:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Inorganic and Physical ChemistryGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations