Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 27–39 | Cite as

Solid-state reference electrodes for potentiometric sensors

  • U. Guth
  • F. Gerlach
  • M. Decker
  • W. Oelßner
  • W. Vonau
Review Paper

Abstract

The availability and application of solid-state reference electrodes for potentiometric electrochemical sensors are briefly reviewed. For a long time, considerable efforts have been made to combine solid-state indicator electrodes with equivalent reference electrodes to take advantage of the absence of liquid system components to full capacity. In spite of various suggestions to solve the problem, no type of solid-state reference electrode is so far available with properties completely identical to conventional ones.

Keywords

Reference electrode Reference electrolyte Gel electrolyte Filled polymer Transition metal oxide bronze REFET 

References

  1. 1.
    Crowe DC, Tromans D (1986) Pap Int Symp Corros Pulp Pap Ind 5:159Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lisdat F, Moritz W, Müller C (1990) Z Chem 30:427Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Galster H (1990) pH-Messung. VCH, Weinheim, pp 82–92Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ostwald W (1894) Hand- und Hilfsbuch zur Ausführung physikochemischer Messungen. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ives DJG, Janz GJ (1961) Reference electrodes—theory and practice. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Galster H (1969) Fresenius Z Anal Chem 245:62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaden H, Vonau W (1998) J Prakt Chem 340:710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Galster H (1980) GIT Fachz Lab 24:744Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dörfler HD (2002) Grenzflächen und kolloid-disperse Systeme-Physik und Chemie. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vonau W, Gabel J, Teichmann P, Lange R (2000) DE10047825Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vonau W, Bachmann T, Gabel J, Lange R (2002) pH-Elektroden für den Einsatz in der Prozesschemie und Biotechnologie. In: Baselt JP, Gerlach G (eds) Dresdner Beiträge zur Sensorik, Vol. 12: Sensoren im Fokus neuer Anwendungen. Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelkontrolle, Biosysteme und Nanobiotechnologie, Umweltmesstechnik, neue Sensormaterialien, Mess-und Eichwesen. w.e.b. Universitätsverlag, Dresden, pp 13–16Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gabel J, Vonau W, Lange R, Berthold K (2000) GIT-Laborfachzeitschrift 45:366Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stellmacher KDE (1989) 39 42500Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Russel TH, Haaf D (1987) EP 0247535Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vonau W, Kaden H, Berthold M, John P, Steinrichter G (1995) DE 195 33 059Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blaz T, Migdalski J, Lewenstam A (2005) Analyst 130:637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kisiel A, Marcisz H, Michalska A, Maksymiuk K (2005) Analyst 130:1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vonau W, Oelßner W, Sikora JR, Henze J (2003) DE 103 05 005Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vonau W, Oelßner W, Zosel J, Henze J, Guth U (2007) Chem Ing Tech 79:1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Matsumoto T, Ohashi A, Ito N (2002) Anal Chim Acta 462:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sun X, Wang M (2006) Electrochim Acta 52:427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Klare P, Herrmann S, Berthold F, Vonau W (2006) Lab-on-Chip-Messsystem. In: Guth U, Vonau W (eds) Elektrochemische Grundlagenforschung und deren Anwendung in der Elektroanalytik. 7. Vortragstagung des Arbeitskreises Elektrochemische Analysenmethoden der Fachgruppe Analytische Chemie (ELACH 7) und 11. Grundlagensymposium der Fachgruppe Angewandte Elektrochemie, pp 111–114Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang IY, Huang RS, Lo LH (2003) Sens Actuators B 94:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tymecki L, Zwierkowska E, Koncki R (2004) Anal Chim Acta 526:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Laukis I, Maczuszenko A (2003) CA 2 547 698Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shim YB, Kwon NH (2005) KR 102 007 001 9370Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kinlen PJ, Heider JE, Hubbard DE (1994) Sens Actuators B 22:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Suzuki K, Maruyama K (2004) JP 002005274182Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Choi YS (2001) EP 1 193 495Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ha J, Martin SM, Jeon Y, Yoon IJ, Brown RB, Nam H, Cha GS (2005) Anal Chim Acta 549:59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yamaguchi S, Shimomura T, Uchida N, Katsube T, Oyama N, (1989) EP 0 366 566Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kwon NH, Lee KS, Won MS, Shim YB (2007) Analyst 132:906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Curry K, WO (2006) 2007/100644Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gumbrecht W, Schelter W, Montag B (1993) EP 0 597 203Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shin JH, Lee SD, Nam H, Cha GS, Bae BW (2000) US 6 554 982Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cha GS, Cui G, Yoo J, Lee JS, Nam H (2001) US 6964734Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Högg G, Steiner G, Cammann K (1994) Sens Actuators B 18–19:376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mroz A, Borchardt M, Diekmann C, Cammann K, Knoll M, Dumschat C (1998) Analyst 123:1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Suzuki H, Karube M (2000) US 6 419 809Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Suzuki H, Hirakawa T, Sasaki S, Karube I (1998) Sens Actuators B 46:146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Suzuki H, Shiroishi H, Sasaki S, Karube I (1999) Anal Chem 71:5069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Birch BJ, Thomas NJ, Atkinson JK, Cranny AWJ, Siuda PR (1995) EP 0 682 247Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kotte H, Gründig B, Strehlitz B, Ethner K (1992) DE 4 241 206Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cranny AWJ, Atkinson JK (1998) Meas Sci Technol 9:1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Desmond D, Lane B, Alderman J, Glennon JD, Diamond D, Arrigan DWM (1997) Sens Actuators B 44:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gerlach F, Vonau W, Kaden H (2002) Sci Rep, Univ Appl Sci Mittweida 10:123Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vonau W, Enseleit U, Gerlach F, Herrmann S (2004) Electrochim Acta 49:3745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Decker M, Gläser M, Pflugbeil K Trademark (2002) DE 102 46 303Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Decker M, Gläser M, Hösel M, Lötzsch M, Schewtschenko O, Steinbach H (2002) Sci Rep, Univ Appl Sci Mittweida 10:129Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kakiuchi T, Shibata M, Nomura S, Iwamoto Y, Yamanuki M (2006) US 20080000771Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kakiuchi T, Yoshimatsu T, Nishi N (2007) Anal Chem 79:7187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maminska R, Dybko A, Wroblewski W (2006) Sens Actuators B 115:552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Comte PA, Janata J (1978) Anal Chim Acta 101:247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Prohaska O (1987) Patent US 4682602Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Van den Berg A, Grisel A, Van den Vlekkert HH, De Rooij NF (1990) Sens Actuators B 1:423Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Huang IY, Huang RS, Lo LH (2003) Sens Actuators B 94:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nakajima H, Esashi M, Matsuo T (1982) J Electrochem Soc 129:141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Matsuo T, Nakajima H (1984) Sens Actuators 5:293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Errachid A, Bausells J, Jaffrezic-Renault N (1999) Sens Actuators B 60:43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chou JC, Tzeng DJ (2007) US 20070155037Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chudy M, Wroblewski W, Brzozka Z (1999) Sens Actuators B 57:47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lisdat F, Moritz W (1993) Sens Actuators B 15–16:228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lee YC, Sohn BK (2002) J Korean Phys Soc 40:601Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pham MT, Hoffmann W, Hueller J (1992) Sens Actuators B 8:227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Baccar ZM, Jaffrezic-Renault N, Martelet C, Jaffrezic H, Marest G, Plantier A (1996) Sens Actuators B 32:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chovelon M, Fombon JJ, Clechet P, Jaffrezic-Renault N, Martelet C, Nyamsi A, Cros Y (1992) Sens Actuators B 8:221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bergveld P, van den Berg A, van der Wal PD, Skowronska-Ptasinska M, Suholter EJR, Reinhoudt DN (1989) Sens Actuators 18:307Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gumbrecht W, Schelter W, Montag B (1999) Sens Actuators B 1:477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Van den Vlekkert HH, de Rooij NF, van den Berg A, Grisel A (1990) Sens Actuators B 1:395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Han JH, Park S, Boo H, Kim HC, Nho J, Chunga TD (2007) Electroanalysis 19:786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kwon NH, Lee KS, Wonb MS, Shim YB (2007) Analyst 132:906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Morgenshtein A, Sudakov-Boreysha L, Dinnar U, Jakobson CG, Nemirowsky Y (2004) Sens Actuators B 98:18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sorge S, Kurth E, Kunath C, Grüger H (2002) Proc Eurosensors XVI, Prague, 1063Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Oelßner W, Zosel J, Guth U, Pechstein T, Babel W, Connery JG, Demuth C, Grote Gansey M, Verburg JB (2005) Sens Actuators B 105:104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bergveld P (2003) Sens Actuators B 88:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Brinzinger H, Rost B (1940) Fresenius Z Anal Chem 120:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wakkad SESE, Riezk HA, Ebaid IG (1955) J Phys Chem 59:1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yamamoto K, Shi G, Zhou T, Xu F, Zhu M, Liu M, Kato T, Jin JY, Jin L (2003) Analytica Chimica Acta 480:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kohler H, Göpel W (1991) Sensors Actuators B 4:345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shuk P, Ramanujachary KV, Greenblatt M (1996) Solid State Ionics 86–88:1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gabel J, Vonau W, Guth U (2003) Ionics 9:176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gabel J, Vonau W, Shuk P, Guth U (2004) Solid State Ionics 169:75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gabel J (2006) Elektrochemische Untersuchungen an Elektroden aus Übergangsmetallbronzen, PhD Thesis Dresden University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kaden H, Jahn H, Berthold M (2004) Solid State Ionics 169:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bachmann T, Spindler J, Gerlach F, Vonau W (2005) DE 10 2005 059 680.0Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Guth
    • 1
  • F. Gerlach
    • 1
  • M. Decker
    • 1
  • W. Oelßner
    • 1
  • W. Vonau
    • 1
  1. 1.Kurt-Schwabe-Institut für Mess- und Sensortechnik e.V. MeinsbergZiegra-KnobelsdorfGermany

Personalised recommendations