Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 312–319 | Cite as

Potentiometric sensors based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with sulfonated calix[4]arene and calix[4]resorcarenes

  • Mercedes Vázquez
  • Johan Bobacka
  • Minna Luostarinen
  • Kari Rissanen
  • Andrzej Lewenstam
  • Ari Ivaska


Potentiometric ion sensors have been prepared by galvanostatic electrosynthesis of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with p-sulfonated calix[4]arene (C[4]S) and p-methylsulfonated calix[4]resorcarenes (R n [4]S) with alkyl substituents of different chain length (R1=CH3; R2=C2H5; R3=C6H13). The bowl-shape of these doping ions makes them suitable as ionic recognition sites, and their bulky character is expected to prevent them from leaching out of the conducting polymer membrane. For comparison, sensors based on PEDOT doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(vinyl sulfonate) (PVS) were also constructed. The resulting GC/PEDOT electrodes were conditioned in 0.01 mol L−1 AgNO3 and their performance as Ag+ ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) studied. Results reveal that selectivity and lifetime of the electrodes is affected by the doping anion structure, although all electrodes show selectivity towards Ag+ ions. Interaction of Ag+ with sulfur atoms present in the conducting polymer backbone is considered to be the main reason for this behavior. A second set of electrodes was constructed and conditioned in 0.1 mol L−1 KCl. These electrodes were tested in chloride solutions of quaternary ammonium cations, showing that C[4]S and R2[4]S exhibit significant sensitivity towards pyridinium.


Ion-selective electrode Silver Calix[4]arene Calix[4]resorcarene Conducting polymer 



The authors are grateful to the ERASMUS exchange student Jens Künnemeyer for experimental assistance. Financial support from the National Technology Agency (TEKES) and the Academy of Finland are gratefully acknowledged. This work is part of the activities at the Åbo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre within the Finnish Centre of Excellence Programme (2000–2005) by the Academy of Finland.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mercedes Vázquez
    • 1
    • 3
  • Johan Bobacka
    • 1
  • Minna Luostarinen
    • 2
  • Kari Rissanen
    • 2
  • Andrzej Lewenstam
    • 1
  • Ari Ivaska
    • 1
  1. 1.Process Chemistry Centre, Laboratory of Analytical ChemistryÅbo Akademi UniversityÅbo-TurkuFinland
  2. 2.Nanoscience Center, Department of ChemistryUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  3. 3.Graduate School of Materials Research (GSMR)

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