Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 8, Issue 10, pp 748–756 | Cite as

Electrochromic and structural characteristics of mesoporous WO3 films prepared by a sol-gel method

  • Renata Solarska
  • Bruce D. Alexander
  • Jan AugustynskiEmail author
Original Paper


The preparation of electrochromic films of mesoporous tungsten trioxide from tungstic acid and tungstic hexaethoxide precursors with the addition of an organic stabiliser via a sol-gel method is reported. These films have been structurally characterised and both the film morphology and crystalline composition of the films were found to be significantly dependent on the temperature at which the films were annealed and upon the choice of precursor. Films annealed at lower temperatures consisted of amorphous and hexagonal tungsten trioxide, whereas films annealed above 500 °C comprised solely of monoclinic WO3. The electrochromic activity of the films was found to be equally dependent on method of preparation, and both the composition and the structure of the WO3 films were shown to clearly influence the colouration efficiency of the films.


Tungsten trioxide Mesoporous film Electrochromism Raman spectroscopy Sol-gel synthesis 



This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy.


  1. 1.
    Kresge CT, Leonowicz ME, Roth WJ, Vartuli JC, Beck JS (1992) Nature 359:710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Inagaki S, Fukushima Y, Kuroda K (1993) J Chem Soc Chem Comm 8:680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huo Q, Margolese DI, Ciesla U, Demuth DG, Feng P, Gier TE, Sieger P, Firouzi A, Chmelka BF, Schüth F, Stucky GD (1994) Chem Mater 6:1176Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Antonelli DM, Ying JY (1995) Angew Chem Int Edit 34:2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tian Z, Tong W, Wang J, Duan N, Krishnan VV, Suib SL (1997) Science 276:926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang P, Zhao D, Margolese DI, Chmelka BF, Stucky GD (1998) Nature 396:152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Orton W, Powell MJ (1980) Rep Prog Phys 43:1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Santato C, Odziemkowski M, Ulmann M, Augustynski J (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:10639CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Santato C, Ulmann M, Augustynski J (2001) J Phys Chem B 105:936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nonaka K, Takase A, Miyakawa K (1993) J Mater Sci Lett 12:274Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Daniel MF, Desbat B, Lassegues JC, Gerand B, Figlarz M (1987) J Solid State Chem 67:235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee S, Cheong HM, Tracy CE, Mascarenhas A, Benson DK, Deb SK (1999) Electrochim Acta 44:3111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Faughnan BW, Crandall RS, Heyman PM (1975) RCA Rev 36:177Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Djaoued Y, Ashrit PV, Badilescu S, Brüning R (2003) J Sol-Gel Sci Techn 28:235Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee S, Cheong HM, Zhang J, Mascarenhas A, Benson DK, Deb SK (1999) Appl Phys Lett 74:242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Solarska R, Alexander BD, Augustynski J (2004) unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renata Solarska
    • 1
  • Bruce D. Alexander
    • 1
  • Jan Augustynski
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Département de Chimie Minérale, Analytique et AppliquéeUniversité de GenèveGenèveSuisse

Personalised recommendations