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Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: a 31-year retrospective study and analysis of 214 cases reported in the literature

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The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features of BSCC in the oral cavity, diagnosed over 31 years of service in oral pathology, and make comparisons with the data reported in the literature.


Data regarding gender, age, clinical presentation, anatomical location, symptoms, evolution time, size of lesion, and use of alcohol and tobacco from cases of BSCC were collected. Additionally, we conducted a review of BSCC studies from searches in three electronic databases.


Among 24,570 oral biopsies, 7 (0.03%) were BSCC and represented 0.8% of oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 875). All cases occurred in males, and the prevalent affected age was the sixth decade (60%). Ulcers occurred in all cases, with the majority showing no symptoms (71.4%). The tongue (30.8%), alveolar ridge/gingiva (30.8%), and floor of the mouth (23.1%) were the anatomical locations affected. The literature review indicated a total of fifteen publications, reporting 214 cases of BSCC. Males (76.7%) in the seventh (53.3%) decade of life were most affected. According to the cases with adequate information, symptomatic (90.0%) ulcers (80.0%) in the floor of the mouth (42.1%), with a mean size of 2 cm and the mean evolution time of 1.5 to 18 months were the most seen. Association with tobacco and alcohol use, when noted, was 50.0%.


The features presented in this study are more similar than different when compared with the literature data.

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This work was supported by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). LFS is a scholarship recipient.

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Correspondence to Lauren Frenzel Schuch.

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Schuch, L.F., Nóbrega, K.H.S., Gomes, A.P.N. et al. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: a 31-year retrospective study and analysis of 214 cases reported in the literature. Oral Maxillofac Surg 24, 103–108 (2020).

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  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
  • Oral cancer
  • Epidemiology