Anteroposterior and vertical soft tissue cephalometric norms of Iranians, interethnic comparisons, sex dimorphism, and the effect of age on cephalometric variables

  • Vahid Rakhshan
  • Fataneh GhorbanyjavadpourEmail author
Original Article



This study established about 50 anteroposterior and vertical cephalometric norms of five tracing analyses in Iranians, using a large sample.


Lateral cephalographs of 130 subjects (85 females, 45 males, with an average age of 22.77 ± 2.55 years (range 20–29)) were traced manually using the Ricketts, Holdaway, Z-Merrifield, Epker, and Legan-Burstone soft tissue analyses. The role of age and sex on measurements, as well as the comparisons between Iranian norms with Caucasians from European decent, was determined statistically (α = 0.001).


Age had no significant effect (all P values > 0.01). Sexual dimorphism existed in terms of numerous parameters. Compared to analysis standards, upper lip to E-plane, nose prominence, upper lip thickness, nasomental angle, Z angle, interlabial distance, subnasale perp to chin, subnasale-stomion:stomion-menton, subnasale-lower lip:lower lip-menton, interlabial gap, and vertical lip-chin ratio were smaller in Iranians. Superior sulcus depth, skeletal profile convexity, upper lip strain, upper lip curvature, H-angle, soft tissue chin thickness, nasofacial angle, subnasale perp to upper lip, subnasale perp to lower lip, maxillary prognathism, lower face throat angle, upper lip protrusion, lower lip protrusion, mentolabial sulcus, and lower vertical height-depth ratio were greater in Iranians compared to the norm (P ≤ 0.001).


A great degree of sex dimorphism might exist among Iranians. Many textbook norms might not be the best options for diagnosis or treatment of Iranians.


Anthropometry Ethnic groups Orthodontic norms Soft tissue profile Sex dimorphism 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included prospectively in the study.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dental Anatomy, Dental FacultyAzad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Orthodontics Department, School of DentistryAhvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran

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