Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 53–61 | Cite as

Guaiacol/β-cyclodextrin for rapid healing of dry socket: antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity, and bone repair—an animal study

  • Patricia Verónica Aulestia-Viera
  • Sávio Morato Lacerda Gontijo
  • Alinne Damásia Martins Gomes
  • Rubén Dario Sinisterra
  • Rodney Garcia Rocha
  • Maria Esperanza Cortés
  • Marinilce Fagundes dos Santos
  • Maria Aparecida BorsattiEmail author
Original Article



Dry socket (DS) is one the most common and symptomatic post-extraction complications; however, no consensus on its treatment has been reached. This study aimed to develop a novel dressing material for DS containing the phenolic agent guaiacol and evaluate its biological properties.


An inclusion complex of guaiacol and β-cyclodextrin (Gu/βcd) was prepared by freeze-drying. Its antibacterial activity over six oral bacteria was analyzed using the microdilution method, and its cytotoxicity in osteoblasts was assessed with the MTT assay. The alveolar healing process induced by Gu/βcd was evaluated histologically after the treatment of DS in rats.


βcd complexation potentiated Gu’s antibacterial effect and reduced its cytotoxicity in osteoblasts. Bone trabeculae were formed in the alveolar apices of rats treated with Gu/βcd by day 7. On day 14, woven bone occupied the apical and middle thirds of the sockets; on day 21, the entire alveolus was filled by newly formed bone, which was in a more advanced stage of repair than the positive control (Alvogyl™).


The improvement in Gu’s biological properties in vitro and the rapid alveolar repair in comparison with Alvogyl™ in vivo demonstrated the benefits of the Gu/βcd complex as a future alternative for the treatment of DS.


Antibacterial agent Cytotoxicity Dry socket Guaiacol Oral surgery Animal study 



We acknowledge the National Institute of Science and Technology in Nanobiopharmaceutical, Foundation for Supporting Research in the State of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES).


This work was supported by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, Brazil) in the form of a postgraduate scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution at which the studies were conducted.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Verónica Aulestia-Viera
    • 1
  • Sávio Morato Lacerda Gontijo
    • 2
  • Alinne Damásia Martins Gomes
    • 3
  • Rubén Dario Sinisterra
    • 3
  • Rodney Garcia Rocha
    • 1
  • Maria Esperanza Cortés
    • 2
  • Marinilce Fagundes dos Santos
    • 4
  • Maria Aparecida Borsatti
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Stomatology, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of DentistryFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Exact Sciences InstituteFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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