Self-esteem following maxillofacial and orthopedic injuries: preliminary observations in sub-Saharan Africans
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The face is a vital component of one’s personality and body image while extremities are important in function (mobility, routine daily activities). Recovery and rehabilitation from acquired maxillofacial and orthopedic traumas are psychological in nature.
This was a prospective study of recruited subjects in a Nigerian University teaching hospital. A total of 160 participants (80 with maxillofacial injuries and 80 with orthopedic injuries) had repeated review assessments within 1 week of arrival in the hospital (time 1), 4–8 weeks after initial contact (time 2), and 10–12 weeks thereafter (time 3), using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Questionnaire.
Thirty-three (41.3%) participants in the maxillofacial injured and 12 (15.0%) in the orthopedic injured subjects scored between 0 and 14 at time 1. At time 2, 39 (51.3%) subjects in the maxillofacial fracture group and 20 (29.0%) in the orthopedic injured group scored between 0 and 14, while at time 3, 7 (9.2%) in the maxillofacial fracture group and 1 (1.5%) in the orthopedic injured group scored between 0 and 14. There was a statistical significant difference between the two groups when compared at times 1, 2, and 3 with p < 0.001, p = 0.006, and p = 0.041 respectively. Subjects with maxillofacial fracture consistently had lower self-esteem compared to subjects with orthopedic injured for times 1, 2, and 3.
Self-esteem may be reduced following maxillofacial injuries; therefore, measures should be taken by surgeons to minimize the risk of facial scarring by careful handling of tissues. Also, management of these injuries should integrate multidisciplinary care that will address psychological needs of patients.
KeywordsFracture Maxillofacial Orthopedic Psychological Self-esteem
The authors are grateful to the nursing staff of the surgical and orthopedic wards of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife, for their assistance during the study period.
Dr. Braimah R. O was the initiator of the concept, involved in the design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing, and manuscript review.
Dr. Ukpong D. I was the initiator of the concept, involved in design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing, and manuscript review.
Prof. Ndukwe K. C was the initiator of the concept, involved in the design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing, and manuscript review.
Prof Akinyoola A. L was involved in the design, definition of intellectual content, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing, and manuscript review.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
Approval and consent to participate in the study were gotten from the hospital’s Ethics and Research Committee with protocol number ERC/2012/02/06, national number NHREC/27/02/2009a, and international number IRB/IEC/0004553.
Consent for publication
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