Comparison of intravenous tramadol versus ketorolac in the management of postoperative pain after oral and maxillofacial surgery
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The aim of this study was to assess the better postoperative analgesic, tramadol, and ketorolac, in patients with maxillofacial trauma and who had undergone maxillofacial surgery, i.e., open reduction internal fixation, under general anesthesia.
Materials and methods
After taking ethical approval from the institution and informed consent, 46 ASA grade I–II patients were block randomized (ABAB) based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and equally divided into two groups in which one group of patients was given intravenous tramadol 100 mg and another group of patients was given intravenous ketorolac 30 mg at the time of closure of skin and was repeated after 8 and 16 h following surgery. Pain using VAS at the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th, and 24th postoperative was assessed, and association of results was compared using Cramer’s V test SPSS (Version 22). Vital signs and side effects were recorded.
Although both drugs resulted in significant decrease in pain intensity from the 2nd to 24th postoperative hour, intravenous tramadol always resulted in better pain control than intravenous ketorolac at every postoperative hour (p value < 0.05) except at 2nd hour where changes are non-significant (p value > 0.05).
Apart from first 2 h where the changes are non-significant, this study clearly demonstrates the advantage of the intravenous tramadol in the management of postoperative pain and ease of administration in postoperative patient through IV cannula. The side effects of both the drugs were insignificant and did not have any effect on the result.
KeywordsASA grades Analgesics Intramuscular Intravenous Ketorolac ORIF Tramadol Visual analogue scale
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was performed on human subjects, and prior ethical clearance was received from the institution ethical committee.
Informed consent about procedure, possible complications, and expected outcomes was explained and taken from each subject.
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