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Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 215–223 | Cite as

Comparative evaluation of soft and hard tissue changes following endosseous implant placement using flap and flapless techniques in the posterior edentulous areas of the mandible—a randomized controlled trial

  • Divya Kumar
  • G Sivaram
  • B Shivakumar
  • TSS Kumar
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Dental implant-supported restorations have long been used as a successful modality for replacing missing teeth. There are two well-established methods of implant placement. The traditional approach to implant surgery involves raising a mucoperiosteal flap and the alternative approach does not involve reflecting a flap, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of the present study was to compare and evaluate the soft and hard tissue changes around endosseous implants placed using flap and flapless surgery in mandibular posterior edentulous sites over a period of time.

Materials and methods

A total of 20 systemically healthy patients with a single edentulous site in the posterior mandible were enrolled in this study and 20 endosseous implants were placed (10 in the flap group and 10 in the flapless group). The peri-implant probing depth was assessed. Radiographic assessment was done for changes in the marginal bone levels at the mesial and distal side of the implant with measurements made at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Patient-centered outcomes were assessed by using the visual analogue scale (VAS). All these parameters were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired Student t test, and two-way ANOVA test and were considered to be significant if the p value was ≤ 0.05.

Results

Twenty patients were enrolled in the present study and endosseous implants were placed. Eighteen subjects were followed up throughout the study period and two patients were excluded from the study. The mean PD in the flapless group was comparatively less than the flap group at 12 months and was found to be statistically significant. During the observation period of 12 months, reduction of crestal bone height around the implants placed by flapless and flap surgery were statistically significant. The flapless group showed less change in the crestal bone height which was statistically significant compared to the flap group. The mean VAS score on day 0 in the flap and flapless group was statistically significant. The flapless group showed significantly less pain when compared to the flap group.

Conclusion

Although the flapless technique of endosseous implant placement had statistically significant less PD, bone loss, and pain than the flap technique, the difference was found to have uncertain clinical significance.

Keywords

Endosseous implants Flap and flapless method Peri-implant probing Crestal bone loss 

Abbrevations

BIC

bone implant contact

VAS

visual analogue scale

PD

probing depth

KM

keratinized mucosa

CBH

crestal bone height

WSRT

Wilcoxon signed-rank test

CSR

cumulative success rate

Notes

Authors’ contributions

Dr.Divya Kumar (DK): Has performed the clinical trial and has significantly played a role in the acquisition of data, interpretation and drafting the manuscript.

Dr.Sivaram Gopalakrishnan (SG): Has made substantial contributions to conception and design of the study, guided the clinical procedures and critical evaluation of the manuscript and its revision.

Dr.Shivakumar Baskaran (SB): Has contributed to the study design and co-ordinated the clinical procedures.

Dr.T.S.S.Kumar (TSSK): Has mentored the study, revised the manuscript, and has given the final approval of the version to be published.

All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board prior to commencement. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PeriodonticsRagas Dental College and HospitalChennaiIndia

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