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Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 403–410 | Cite as

Morphometric facial analysis: a methodology to create lateral facial images

  • Koohyar KarimiEmail author
  • Zlatko Devcic
  • Natalie Popenko
  • Udochukwu Oyoyo
  • Brian J. F. Wong
Original Article

Abstract

Introduction

Currently, the majority of research in facial analysis using computational morphing methods focuses exclusively on analysis of frontal facial projections. Lateral facial morphing analysis has not been extensively investigated, and landmark features critical to specify registry points are unknown. This study aims to (1) determine the quantity of registry points (RP) required to create realistic lateral faces and (2) determine key facial registry point landmarks required to create synthetic lateral faces.

Method

36 synthetic lateral faces with a 50 to 250 RP were created to determine the ideal quantity of RP to create a realistic lateral image; ear, eyebrow, eye, nose, lips, hairline, facial outline, and overall outline were evaluated by an expert panel of seven evaluators using a 1 to 5 point Lickert scale rating system.

Result

ANOVA single-variable analyses revealed significant differences when comparing templates of 200 and 250 RP with 50 and 100 RP templates (p < 0.05). Furthermore, analysis of all key landmark areas of the face indicated significant differences between different registry points except for 200 and 250 registry point markers. Kruskal-Wallis statistical analysis revealed the landmarks varied significantly from 50 to 200 RP,but had no significance with 200 and 250 RP.

Conclusion

The most ideal quantity of RP used for the creation of realistic lateral faces was in the range of 200 RP. Defined lateral facial registry point landmarks generated successful realistic faces.

Keywords

Facial esthetics Facial morphing Lateral facial imaging Morphing Cephalometric analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Cyrus Manuel, Dr. Holli Riter, and Dr. Brian Novy for their evaluations and continual support of the project and ideas.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koohyar Karimi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zlatko Devcic
    • 2
  • Natalie Popenko
    • 3
  • Udochukwu Oyoyo
    • 4
  • Brian J. F. Wong
    • 5
  1. 1.UC Irvine Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryLoma Linda University School of DentistryLaguna HillsUSA
  2. 2.UC Irvine Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryStanford University Medical Center (Radiology)PacificaUSA
  3. 3.UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head and Neck SurgeryChicago Medical School of Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and ScienceGreat LakesUSA
  4. 4.Loma Linda University School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University School of MedicineLoma LindaUSA
  5. 5.UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head and Neck SurgeryOrangeUSA

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