Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 109–116 | Cite as

Examining the genetics of congenital facial paralysis—a closer look at Moebius syndrome

  • Sameep KadakiaEmail author
  • Samuel N. Helman
  • Thomas Schwedhelm
  • Masoud Saman
  • Babak Azizzadeh
Review Article



The molecular underpinnings of Moebius syndrome (MBS) are diverse. This article provides a comprehensive summation of the genetic and etiologic literature underlying this disorder. Elucidating the genetic causes of the disorder can aid in earlier detection and treatment planning.


Articles from 1880–2013 were selected and reviewed by six researchers to understand all of the molecular theories and chronicity of advancements in the literature.


Mutations in the MBS1, MBS2, and MBS3 gene loci all have contributed to the development of MBS through various pathways. HOX family genes coding for homeobox domains, also, have been implicated in the abnormal development of the human brain. These are among the numerous genes that have been linked to the development of MBS.


Our study codified nascent findings of the molecular determinants of MBS. These findings add to a growing database of MBS-associated mutations and can be used to diagnose MBS and clarify pathogenesis.


Moebius Diplegia Facial nerve Facial paralysis Congenital Abducens 


Conflicts of interest

No financial disclosures and no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sameep Kadakia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samuel N. Helman
    • 1
  • Thomas Schwedhelm
    • 2
  • Masoud Saman
    • 3
  • Babak Azizzadeh
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck SurgeryNew York Eye and Ear Infirmary—Mount Sinai Health SystemNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  3. 3.Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck SurgeryFacial Plastic Surgery AssociatesFort WorthUSA
  4. 4.Department of Head and Neck SurgeryDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA

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