Text-based approaches for non-topical image categorization
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The rapid expansion of multimedia digital collections brings to the fore the need for classifying not only text documents but their embedded non-textual parts as well. We propose a model for basing classification of multimedia on broad, non-topical features, and show how information on targeted nearby pieces of text can be used to effectively classify photographs on a first such feature, distinguishing between indoor and outdoor images. We examine several variations to a TF*IDF-based approach for this task, empirically analyze their effects, and evaluate our system on a large collection of images from current news newsgroups. In addition, we investigate alternative classification and evaluation methods, and the effects that secondary features have on indoor/outdoor classification. Using density estimation over the raw TF*IDF values, we obtain a classification accuracy of 82%, a number that outperforms baseline estimates and earlier, image-based approaches, at least in the domain of news articles, and that nears the accuracy of humans who perform the same task with access to comparable information.
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