Advertisement

International Journal on Digital Libraries

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 77–93 | Cite as

Avoiding spoilers: wiki time travel with Sheldon Cooper

  • Shawn M. Jones
  • Michael L. Nelson
  • Herbert Van de Sompel
Article

Abstract

A variety of fan-based wikis about episodic fiction (e.g., television shows, novels, movies) exist on the World Wide Web. These wikis provide a wealth of information about complex stories, but if fans are behind in their viewing they run the risk of encountering “spoilers”—information that gives away key plot points before the intended time of the show’s writers. Because the wiki history is indexed by revisions, finding specific dates can be tedious, especially for pages with hundreds or thousands of edits. A wiki’s history interface does not permit browsing across historic pages without visiting current ones, thus revealing spoilers in the current page. Enterprising fans can resort to web archives and navigate there across wiki pages that were live prior to a specific episode date. In this paper, we explore the use of Memento with the Internet Archive as a means of avoiding spoilers in fan wikis. We conduct two experiments: one to determine the probability of encountering a spoiler when using Memento with the Internet Archive for a given wiki page, and a second to determine which date prior to an episode to choose when trying to avoid spoilers for that specific episode. Our results indicate that the Internet Archive is not safe for avoiding spoilers, and therefore we highlight the inherent capability of fan wikis to address the spoiler problem internally using existing, off-the-shelf technology. We use the spoiler use case to define and analyze different ways of discovering the best past version of a resource to avoid spoilers. We propose Memento as a structural solution to the problem, distinguishing it from prior content-based solutions to the spoiler problem. This research promotes the idea that content management systems can benefit from exposing their version information in the standardized Memento way used by other archives. We support the idea that there are use cases for which specific prior versions of web resources are invaluable.

Keywords

Digital preservation HTTP Resource versioning Web archiving Wikis Spoilers 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was made possible in part by a Grant from the Andrew Mellon Foundation. We are grateful to the Internet Archive for their continued support of Memento. Memento is a joint project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory Research Library and Old Dominion University.

References

  1. 1.
    Ainsworth, S.G., Nelson, M.L.: Evaluating sliding and sticky target policies by measuring temporal drift in acyclic walks through a web archive. JCDL, 39–48 (2013). doi: 10.1145/2467696.2467718
  2. 2.
    Ainsworth, S.G., Nelson, M.L., Van de Sompel, H.: A Framework for Evaluation of Composite Memento Temporal Coherence. Tech. Rep., Old Dominion University (2014) arXiv:1402.0928
  3. 3.
    Almeida, R., Mozafari, B., Cho, J.: On the Evolution of Wikipedia. In: ICWSM (2007). http://www.icwsm.org/papers/paper2.html. Accessed 03 May 2014
  4. 4.
    AlNoamany, Y., Weigle, M.C., Nelson, M.L.: Detecting off-topic pages within timemaps in web archives. Int J Digit. Libr., 1–19 (2016). doi: 10.1007/s00799-016-0183-5
  5. 5.
    AlNoamany, Y.A., Weigle, M.C., Nelson, M.L.: Access patterns for robots and humans in web archives. In: JCDL, 339–348 (2013). doi: 10.1145/2467696.2467722
  6. 6.
    Boyd-Graber, J., Glasgow, K., Zajac, J.S.: Spoiler alert: machine learning approaches to detect social media posts with revelatory information. ASIS&T 50, 1–9 (2013). doi: 10.1002/meet.14505001073 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohen, N.: Spoiler alert: whodunit? Wikipedia will tell you. New York Times (2010). http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/18/business/media/18spoiler.html. Accessed 16 Sep 2014
  8. 8.
    Cuslidge, T., Weiss, J.: Potter fans’ new foe? The Web. Pop Matters (2007). http://www.popmatters.com/article/potter-fans-new-foe-the-web/. Accessed 04 Oct 2014
  9. 9.
    Denham, J.: Netflix releases house of cards ‘Spoiler Foiler’ for twitter users. The Independent (2014). http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/tv/news/netflix-releases-house-of-cards-spoiler-foiler-for-twitter-users-9136324.html. Accessed 24 Oct 2014
  10. 10.
    Golbeck, J.: The twitter mute button: a web filtering challenge. In: SIGCHI, 2755–2758 (2012). doi: 10.1145/2207676.2208673
  11. 11.
    Gross, B.D.: Spoiler alert! Negotiating social media in the DVR age. CNN (2014). http://www.cnn.com/2014/02/25/tech/social-media/spoilers-social-media/. Accessed 24 Oct 2014
  12. 12.
    Hart, H.: Spoiler wars heat up as lost returns. Wired (2009). https://www.wired.com/2009/01/new-lost-season/. Accessed 16 Sep 2014
  13. 13.
    Jeon, S., Kim, S., Yu, H.: Don’t be spoiled by your friends: spoiler detection in TV program tweets. In: Seventh International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 681–684 (2013). http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM13/paper/view/5979. Accessed 02 Nov 2015
  14. 14.
    Johns, M.D.: Two screen viewing and social relationships: exploring the invisible backchannel of TV viewing. In: CATTaC, pp. 333–343 (2012). http://sammelpunkt.philo.at:8080/2159/. Accessed 16 Sep 2014
  15. 15.
    Jones, S.M.: Avoiding Spoilers on MediaWiki Fan Sites Using Memento. Master’s thesis, Old Dominion University (2015). http://digitalcommons.odu.edu/computerscience_etds/1/
  16. 16.
    Jones, S.M., Nelson, M.L., Shankar, H., Van de Sompel, H.: Bringing Web Time Travel to MediaWiki: An Assessment of the Memento MediaWiki Extension. Tech. Rep., Old Dominion University (2014). arXiv:1406.3876
  17. 17.
    Leaver, T.: Watching Battlestar Galactica in Australia and the Tyranny of Digital Distance. Media International Australia, Incorporating Culture and Policy (126), 145 (2008). doi: 10.1177/1329878X0812600115. http://mia.sagepub.com/content/126/1/145.abstract
  18. 18.
    Leavitt, J.D., Christenfeld, N.J.S.: Story spoilers don’t spoil stories. Psychol Sci 22(9), 1152–1154 (2011). doi: 10.1177/0956797611417007
  19. 19.
    Leuf, B., Cunningham, W.: The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co. Inc, Boston (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mittell, J.: Sites of participation: Wiki fandom and the case of Lostpedia. TWC (2009). doi: 10.3983/twc.2009.0118
  21. 21.
    SalahEldeen, H.M., Nelson, M.L.: Losing My Revolution: How Many Resources Shared on Social Media Have Been Lost?, pp. 125–137. Springer, Berlin (2012). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-33290-6_14
  22. 22.
    Schirra, S., Sun, H., Bentley, F.: Together alone. SIGCHI, pp. 2441–2450 (2014). doi: 10.1145/2556288.2557070
  23. 23.
    Steel, E.: Those Dreaded Spoilers That Can Torpedo Dramatic Plot Take On a New Meaning. New York Times (2014). http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/22/business/media/those-dreaded-spoilers-that-can-torpedo-dramatic-plot-take-on-a-new-meaning.html. Accessed 16 Sep 2014
  24. 24.
    Steiner, T., van Hooland, S., Summers, E.: MJ No More: Using Concurrent Wikipedia Edit Spikes with Social Network Plausibility Checks for Breaking News Detection. In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on World Wide Web, ACM, pp. 791–794 (2013). doi: 10.1145/2487788.2488049
  25. 25.
    Toyoda, M., Kitsuregawa, M.: The History of Web Archiving. In: Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 100 (Special Centennial Issue), pp. 1441–1443 (2012). doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2012.2189920
  26. 26.
    Tsang, A.S.L., Yan, D.: Reducing the Spoiler Effect in Experiential Consumption. Advances in Consumer Research (36), 708–709 (2009). http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/14341/volumes/v36/NA-36. Accessed 10 Feb 2015
  27. 27.
    Van de Sompel, H., Nelson, M.L., Sanderson, R.: RFC 7089: HTTP Framework for Time-Based Access to Resource States—Memento (2013). http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc7089.txt. Accessed 03 May 2014
  28. 28.
    Van de Sompel, H., Nelson, M.L., Sanderson, R., Balakireva, L., Ainsworth, S., Shankar, H.: Memento: Time travel for the web. Tech. Rep., Los Alamos National Laboratories and Old Dominion University (2009). arXiv:0911.1112
  29. 29.
    Van de Sompel, H., Sanderson, R., Nelson, M., Balakireva, L., Shankar, H., Ainsworth, S.: An HTTP-based versioning mechanism for linked data. In: LDOW (2010). http://events.linkeddata.org/ldow2010/papers/ldow2010_paper13. Accessed 08 Aug 2016
  30. 30.
    Yaspan, A.: Essentials of Probability. Prindle, Weber and Schmidt, Boston (1968)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zittrain, J., Albert, K., Lessig, L.: Perma: scoping and addressing the problem of link and reference rot in legal citations. Leg. Inf. Manag. 14(2), 88–99 (2014). doi: 10.1017/S1472669614000255 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  2. 2.Old Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations