International Journal on Digital Libraries

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 59–72 | Cite as

Supporting academic search tasks through citation visualization and exploration

Article

Abstract

Despite ongoing advances in information retrieval algorithms, people continue to experience difficulties when conducting online searches within digital libraries. Because their information-seeking goals are often complex, searchers may experience difficulty in precisely describing what they are seeking. Current search interfaces provide limited support for navigating and exploring among the search results and helping searchers to more accurately describe what they are looking for. In this paper, we present a novel visual library search interface, designed with the goal of providing interactive support for common library search tasks and behaviours. This system takes advantage of the rich metadata available in academic collections and employs information visualization techniques to support search results evaluation, forward and backward citation exploration, and interactive query refinement.

Keywords

Search interface Information retrieval Information visualization Digital library 

References

  1. 1.
    Ahn, J., Brusilovsky, P.: Adaptive visualization for exploratory information retrieval. Inf. Process. Manag. 49(5), 1139–1164 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, T.J., Hussam, A., Plummer, B., Jacobs, N.: Pie charts for visualizing query term frequency in search results. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, pp. 440–451 (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrews, K., Sabol, V., Lackner, W., Gütl, C., Moser, J.: Search result visualization with xFIND. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on User Interfaces to Data Intensive Systems, pp. 50–60 (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bates, M.J.: The design of browsing and berrypicking techniques for the online search interface. Online Inf. Rev. 13(5), 407–424 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Becker, R., Eick, S., Wilks, A.: Visualizing network data. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 1(1), 16–28 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bergstrom, P., Atkinson, D.C.: Augmenting the exploration of digital libraries with Web-based visualizations. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Information Management (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Börner, K., Chen, C.: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Springer, Berlin (2002)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bostock, M., Ogievetsky, V., Heer, J.: D3 data-driven documents. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 17(12), 2301–2309 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Capra, R.G., Marchionini, G.: The relation browser tool for faceted exploratory search. In: Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, p. 420 (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Choo, J., Lee, C., Clarkson, E., Liu, Z., Lee, H., Chau, D.H.P., Li, F., Kannan, R., Stolper, C.D., Inouye, D., et al.: VisIRR: interactive visual information retrieval and recommendation for large-scale document data. Technical Report, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clarkson, E., Desai, K., Foley, J.: ResultMaps: visualization for search interfaces. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(6), 1057–1064 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cribbin, T.: Augmenting citation chain aggregation with article maps. In: Proceedings of the Knoweldege Maps and Information Retrieval Workshop, pp. 31–39 (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dervin, B., Dewdney, P.: Neutral questioning: a new approach to the reference interview. Res. Q. 25(4), 506–513 (1986)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Diriye, A., Tombros, A., Blandford, A.: A little interaction can go a long way: enriching the query formulation process. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Advances in Information Retrieval, pp. 531–534 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellis, D.: A behavioural model for information retrieval system design. J. Inf. Sci. 15(4–5), 237–247 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Elmqvist, N., Tsigas, P.: Causality visualization using animated growing polygons. In: IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, pp. 189 –196 (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elmqvist, N., Tsigas, P.: CiteWiz: a tool for the visualization of scientific citation networks. Inf. Vis. 6(3), 215–232 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Few, S.: Now You See It: Simple Visualization Techniques for Quantitative Analysis. Analytics Press, Oakland (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Furnas, G., Landauer, T., Gomez, L., Dumais, S.: The vocabulary problem in human–system communication. Commun. ACM 30(11), 964–971 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ghoniem, M., Fekete, J.-D., Castagliola, P.: A comparison of the readability of graphs using node-link and matrix-based representations. In: IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, pp. 17–24 (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Glänzel, W.: Bibliometrics-aided retrieval: where information retrieval meets scientometrics. Scientometrics 102(3), 2215–2222 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Graells-Garrido, E., Lalmas, M., Baeza-Yates, R.: Sentiment visualisation widgets for exploratory search. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Social Personalisation (2014)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hafernik, C.T., Jansen, B.J.: Understanding the specificity of Web search queries. In: CHI Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1827–1832 (2013)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hearst, M.: Search User Interfaces. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hearst, M., Karadi, C.: Cat-a-Cone: an interactive interface for specifying searches and viewing retrieval results using a large category hierarchy. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 246–255 (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hearst, M.A.: TileBars: visualization of term distribution information in full text information access. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 59–66 (1995)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Heimonen, T., Jhaveri, N.: Visualizing query occurrence in search result lists. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Information Visualization, pp. 877–882 (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hoeber, O.: Human-centered Web search. In: Jouis, C., Biskri, I., Ganascia, J.-G., Roux, M. (eds.) Next Generation Search Engines: Advanced Models for Information Retrieval, pp. 217–238. IGI Global, Hershey (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hoeber, O.: A longitudinal study of HotMap web search. Online Inf. Rev. 37(2), 252–267 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hoeber, O., Khazaei, T.: Evaluating citation visualization and exploration methods for supporting academic search tasks. Online Inf. Rev. 39(2), 229–254 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hoeber, O., Yang, X.D.: Interactive Web information retrieval using WordBars. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM Conference on Web Intelligence, pp. 875–882 (2006)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hoeber, O., Yang, X.D.: Evaluating WordBars in exploratory Web search scenarios. Inf. Process. Manag. 44(2), 485–510 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoeber, O., Yang, X.D.: HotMap: supporting visual explorations of Web search results. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 60(1), 90–110 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hoeber, O., Yang, X.D., Yao, Y.: Visualization support for interactive query refinement. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM Conference on Web Intelligence, pp. 657 – 665 (2005)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hoeber, O., Yang, X.D., Yao, Y.: VisiQ: supporting visual and interactive query refinement. Web Intell. Agent Syst. Int. J. 5(3), 311–329 (2007)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jansen, B.J., Spink, A.: How are we searching the World Wide Web? A comparison of nine search engine transaction logs. Inf. Process. Manag. 42(1), 248–263 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Joho, H., Coverson, C., Sanderson, M., Beaulieu, M.: Hierarchical presentation of expansion terms. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 645–649 (2002)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kampanya, N., Shen, R., Kim, S., North, C., Fox, E.A.: Citivz: a visual user interface to the CITIDEL system. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 122–123 (2004)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Katz, W.: Introduction to Reference Work: Reference Services and Reference Processes. McGraw-Hill, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Khazaei, T., Hoeber, O.: Metadata visualization of scholarly search results: Supporting exploration and discovery. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies, pp. 21:1–21:8 (2012)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kuo, B.Y.L., Hentrich, T., Good, B.M., Wilkinson, M.D.: Tag clouds for summarizing web search results. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 1203–1204 (2007)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lawrence, S., Lee Giles, C., Bollacker, K.: Digital libraries and autonomous citation indexing. J. Comput. 32(6), 67–71 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lee, B., Czerwinski, M., Robertson, G., Bederson, B.B.: Understanding research trends in conferences using paperLens. In: CHI Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1969 (2005)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mackinlay, J.: Automating the design of graphical presentations of relational information. ACM Trans. Graph. 5(2), 110–141 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Magennis, M., van Rijsbergen, C.J.: The potential and actual effectiveness of interactive query expansion. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 324–332 (1997)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mahoui, M., Cunningham, S.J.: Search behavior in a research-oriented digital library. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, pp. 13–24 (2001)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Marchionini, G.: Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4), 41–46 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Matejka, J., Grossman, T., Fitzmaurice, G.: Citeology: visualizing paper genealogy. In: CHI Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 181–190 (2012)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mutschke, P., Mayr, P., Schaer, P., Sure, Y.: Science models as value-added services for scholarly information systems. Scientometrics 89(1), 349–364 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mutschke, P., Ou Moussa, K.H.: How can heat maps of indexing vocabularies be utilized for information seeking purposes? In: Proceedings of the First Workshop on Knowledge Maps and Information Retrieval, co-located with the International Conference on Digital Libraries (2014)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nielsen, J.: Enhancing the explanatory power of usability heuristics. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 152–158 (1994)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nowell, L.T., France, R.K., Hix, D., Heath, L.S., Fox, E.A.: Visualizing search results: some alternatives to query-document similarity. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 67–75 (1996)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ortiz-Cordova, A., Jansen, B.J.: Linking external and internal search: investigating the site searching patterns of referred searchers. In: CHI Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1345–1350 (2014)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Radicchi, F., Fortunato, S., Vespignani, A.: Citation networks. In: Scharnhorst, A., Barner, K., van den Besselaar, P. (eds.) Models of Science Dynamics, pp. 233–257. Springer, Berlin (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ruthven, I.: Re-examining the potential effectiveness of interactive query expansion. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Informaion Retrieval, pp. 213–220 (2003)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schraefel, M.C., Wilson, M., Russell, A., Smith, D.: mSpace: improving information access to multimedia domains with multimodal exploratory search. Commun. ACM 49(4), 47–49 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Spoerri, A.: RankSpiral: toward enhancing search results visualizations. In: Proccedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, pp. 18–19 (2004)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stasko, J., Choo, J., Han, Y., Hu, M., Pileggi, H., Sadana, R., Stolper, C.D.: CiteVis: exploring conference paper citation data visually. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Information Visualization (Poster) (2013)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Teevan, J., Dumais, S., Gutt, Z.: Challenges for supporting faceted search in large, heterogeneous corpora like the Web. In: Proceedings of the Human–Computer Information Retrieval Workshop, pp. 6–8 (2008)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tufte, E.: The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphics Press, Cheshire (1983)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tunkelang, D.: Faceted Search.Synthesis Lectures on Information Concepts, Retrieval, and Services. Morgan & Claypool Publisher, San Rafael (2009)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Veerasamy, A., Belkin, N.: Evaluation of a tool for visualization of information retrieval results. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 85–92 (1996)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Viégas, F.B., Donath, J.: Social network visualization: can we go beyond the graph. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (Workshop on Social Networks), pp. 6–10 (2004)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ware, C.: Information Visualization: Perception for Design, 2nd edn. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2004)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    White, R.W., Kules, B., Drucker, S., Schraefel, M.C.: Supporting exploratory search: introduction to special section. Commun. ACM 49(4), 36–39 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    White, R.W., Roth, R.A.: Exploratory search: beyond the query-response paradigm. Synth. Lect. Inf. Concepts Retr. Serv. 1(1), 1–98 (2009)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yee, K.-P., Swearingen, K., Li, K., Hearst, M.: Faceted metadata for image search and browsing. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 401–408 (2003)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhang, J., Shearer, T., Marchionini, G., Efron, M., Elsas, J.: Relation browser++: an information exploration and searching tool. In: Proceedings of the National Conference on Digital Government Research, pp. 109:1–109:2 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of ReginaReginaCanada

Personalised recommendations