International Journal on Digital Libraries

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 1–19

A historical and contemporary study on annotations to derive key features for systems design

  • Maristella Agosti
  • Giorgetta Bonfiglio-Dosio
  • Nicola Ferro
Regular Paper

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive study on annotations by defining their contours and complexity. This work adds a new complementary approach to the usual case and user studies, and also investigates history in order to benefit from previous knowledge and our cultural heritage. This study emphasizes an aspect which has never previously been taken into account: the temporal dimension involved in annotations. Moreover, it discusses both the notion of hypertext between documents and annotations and the idea of annotations as context for documents. The study gives the necessary historical and cultural background to derive a set of key features of annotations that must be taken into account when designing systems that have to support the management of digital annotations on digital contents.

Keywords

Annotations Contents Metadata Hypertext Context Temporal dimension 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Agosti M. (1996). An overview of hypertext. In: Agosti, M. and Smeaton, A. (eds) Information Retrieval and Hypertext, pp 27–47. Kluwer Academic, NorwellGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agosti, M., Benfante, L., Orio, N.: IPSA: a digital archive of herbals to support scientific research. In: Sembok, T.M.T., Zaman, H.B., Chen, H., Urs, S.R., Myaeng, S.H. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries—Digital Libraries: Technology and Management of Indigenous Knowledge (ICADL 2003), pp. 253–264. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 2911, Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agosti, M., Di Nunzio, G.M., Ferro, N.: A data curation approach to support in-depth evaluation studies. In: Gey, F.C., Kando, N., Peters, C., Lin, C.-Y. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Workshop on New Directions in Multilingual Information Access (MLIA 2006), pp. 65–68. http://ucdata.berkeley.edu/sigir2006-mlia.htm [last visited 2006 October 2], 2006Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agosti, M., Di Nunzio, G.M., Ferro, N.: Scientific data of an evaluation campaign: do we properly deal with them? In: Nardi, A., Peters, C., Vicedo, J.L. (eds.) Working Notes for the CLEF 2006 Workshop. http://www.clef- campaign.org/2006/working_notes/workingnotes2006/agost iCLEF2006.pdf [last visited 2006, October 2], 2006Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Agosti, M., Ferro N.: Annotations: enriching a digital library. In: Koch, T., Sølvberg, I.T. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2003), pp. 88–100. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 2769. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Agosti M. and Ferro N. (2003). Managing the interactions between handheld devices, mobile applications and users. In: Lim, E.P. and Siau, K. (eds) Advances in Mobile Commerce Technologies, chap. 10., pp 204–233. Idea Group, Hershey Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agosti, M., Ferro, N.: A system architecture as a support to a flexible annotation service. In: Türker, C., Agosti, M., Schek, H.-J. (eds.) Peer-to-Peer, Grid, and Service-Orientation in Digital Library Architectures: 6th Thematic Workshop of the EU Network of Excellence DELOS. Revised Selected Papers, pp. 147–166. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 3664. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agosti, M., Ferro, N.: Annotations as context for searching documents. In: Crestani, F., Ruthven, I. (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science—Context: Nature, Impact and Role, pp. 155–170. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 3507. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Agosti, M., Ferro, N.: Search Strategies for finding annotations and annotated documents: the FAST Service. In: Legind Larsen, H., Pasi, G., Ortiz-Arroyo, D., Andreasen, T., Christiansen, H. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems (FQAS 2006), pp. 270–281. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNAI), vol. 4027. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Agosti, M., Ferro, N., Frommholz, I., Thiel, U.: Annotations in digital libraries and collaboratories—facets, models and usage. In: Heery, R., Lyon, L. (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2004), pp. 244–255. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 3232. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Agosti M., Ferro N. and Orio N. (2005). Annotating illuminated manuscripts: an effective tool for research and education. In: Marlino, M., Sumner, T., and Shipman, F. (eds) Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL 2005), pp 121–130. ACM Press, New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Agosti M., Ferro N. and Orio N. (2006). Graph-based automatic suggestion of relationships among images of illuminated manuscripts. In: Haddad, H.M., Liebrock, K.M., Chbeir, R., Palakal, M.J., Ossowski, S., Yetongnoon, K., Wainwright, R.L., and Nicolle, C. (eds) Proceedings of the 21st ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2006), pp 1063–1067. ACM Press, New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Agosti M., Ferro N., Panizzi E. and Trinchese R. (2006). Annotation as a support to user interaction for content enhancement in digital libraries. In: Celentano, A. and Mussio, P. (eds) Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2006), pp 151–154. ACM Press, New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Agosti M. and Melucci M. (2000). Information retrieval techniques for the automatic construction of hypertext. In: Kent, A. and Hall, C.M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. vol. 66, pp 139–172. Marcel Dekker, New York Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Agosti M. and Pretto L. (2005). A theoretical study of a generalized version of Kleinberg’s HITS algorithm. Inf. Retr. 8(2): 219–243 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    (1996). Information Retrieval and Hypertext. Kluwer Academic, Norwell Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Avalle, d’A.S.: Principi di critica testuale. Vulgares Eloquentes, vol. 7. Antenore, Padova (1972)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barbieri, E. (ed.): Nel mondo delle postille: i libri a stampa con note manoscritte. Una raccolta di studi. Humanae litterae, 6, CUSL, Milano, Italia, (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barbieri, E., Frasso, G. (eds.): Libri a stampa postillati. Atti del Colloquio internazionale (Milano, 3–5 lug. 2001). Humanae litterae, 8, CUSL, Milano, Italia (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bartoli Langeli, A.: La documentazione degli stati italiani nei secoli XIII–XV: forme, organizzazione, personale. In: Culture et idéologie dans la genèse de l’État moderne. Actes de la table ronde organisée par le Centre National de la recherche scientifique et l’École Française de Rome (Roma, 15—17 ottobre 1984), pp. 35–55. Collection de l’ École Française de Rome, 82, École Française, Roma, Italia (1985)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bartoli Langeli, A.: La documentazione degli stati italiani nei secoli XIII–XV: forme, organizzazione, personale. In: Albini, G. (ed.) Le scritture del Comune. Amministrazione e memoria nelle città dei secoli XII e XIII, pp. 155–171. I Florigeri, XII, Paravia, Torino, Italia, (1998)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bartoli Langeli, A.: Notai. Scrivere documenti nell’Italia medievale. I libri di Viella, vol. 56. Viella, Roma (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Battelli, I.: Exempla scripturarum edita consilio et opera procuratorum Bibliothecae et Tabularii Vaticani. Fasciculus III. Acta pontificum (editio secunda aucta). apud Bibliothecam Vaticanam, Vaticani (1965)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhagwat D., Chiticariu L., Tan W.-C. and Vijayvargiya G. (2004). An annotation management system for relational databases. In: Nascimento, M.A., Özsu, M.T., Kossmann, D., Miller, R.J., Blakeley, J.A., and Schiefer, K.B. (eds) Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2004), pp 900–911. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisca Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bonfiglio-Dosio, G.: Un nuovo titolario per gli archivi dei comuni italiani? Un contributo per la soluzione di una questione archivistica nazionale. Bollettino della Deputazione di storia patria per l’Umbria, vol. XCIX, pp. 355–380, 2002Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bonfiglio-Dosio, G.: Primi passi nel mondo degli archivi. Temi e testi per la formazione archivistica di primo livello (seconda edizione riveduta e ampliata). CLEUP, Padova (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bottoni P., Civica R., Levialdi S., Orso L., Panizzi E. and Trinchese R. (2004). MADCOW: a multimedia digital annotation system. In: Costabile, M.F. (eds) Proceedings of Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004), pp 55–62. ACM Press, New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bottoni P., Civica R., Levialdi S., Orso L., Panizzi E. and Trinchese R. (2005). Storing and retrieving multimedia web notes. In: Bhalla, S. (eds) Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Databases in Networked Information Systems (DNIS 2005). Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 3433, pp 119–137. Springer, Heidelberg Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bottoni, P., Levialdi, S., Rizzo, P.: An analysis and case study of digital annotation. In: Bianchi-Berthouze, N. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Databases in Networked Information Systems (DNIS 2003), pp. 216–230. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 2822. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bresslau, H.: Manuale di diplomatica per la Germania e l’Italia. Traduzione di Anna Maria Voci-Roth. Pubblicazioni degli Archivi di Stato, Sussidi, vol. 10. Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali—Ufficio Centrale Beni Archivistici, Roma (1998)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Buneman P., Khanna S., Tajima K. and Tan W.-C. (2004). Archiving scientific data. ACM Trans. Database Syst.(TODS) 29(1): 2–42 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Buneman, P., Khanna, S., Tan, W.-C.: Why and where: a characterization of data provenance. In: Van den Bussche, J., Vianu, V. (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2001), pp. 316–330. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 1973. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Buneman P., Khanna S. and Tan W.-C. (2002). On propagation of deletions and annotations through views. In: Abiteboul, S., Kolaitis, P.G., and Popa, L. (eds) Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGMOD–SIGACT–SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems (PODS 2002)., pp 150–158. ACM Press, New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Calonghi, F.: Dizionario latino-italiano, 3 edizione (interamente rifusa ed aggiornata del dizionario Georges—Calonghi)—15 tiratura. Rosenberg and Sellier, Nuova Offlito, Mappano, Torino (1986)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Carucci, P.: Il documento contemporaneo. Diplomatica e criteri di edizione, Beni culturali, vol. 1. NIS, Roma (1987)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Constantopoulos, P., Doerr, M., Theodoridou, M., Tzobanakis, M.: On information organization in annotation systems. In: Grieser, G., Tanaka, Y. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Workshop on Intuitive Human Interfaces for Organizing and Accessing Intellectual Assets, pp. 189–200. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 3359. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cortelazzo, M., Zolli, P.: DELI: Dizionario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana, 2 edizione a cura di M. Cortelazzo e M. A. Cortelazzo. Zanichelli, Bologna (1999)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Croft W.B. (2000). Combining approaches to information retrieval. In: Croft, W.B. (eds) Advances in Information Retrieval: Recent Research from the Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval, pp 1–36. Kluwer Academic, Norwell Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Commission Internationale de Diplomatique Commission Internationale de Sigillographie: Diplomatica et sigillographica. Folia Caesaraugustana, vol. 1. Institucion Fernando el Catolico, Zaragoza (1984)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    de la Sala, F., Rabikauscas, P.: Il documento medievale e moderno. Panorama storico della diplomatica generale pontificia. Pontificia Università Gregoriana—Istituto portoghese di Sant’Antonio, Roma (2003)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Delsalle, P.: Une histoire de l’archivistique. Presses de l’Université du Québec, Québec (1998)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ferro, N.: Formal model and conceptual architecture of the annotation service for dynamic ubiquitous knowledge environments. PhD thesis, Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, Italy, December 2004Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fogli D., Fresta G. and Mussio P. (2004). On electronic annotation and its implementation. In: Costabile, M.F. (eds) Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004), pp 98–102. ACM Press, New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Frenz, T.: I documenti pontifici nel Medioevo e nell’età moderna. Edizione italiana a cura di Sergio Pagano. Littera antiqua, vol. 6. Scuola Vaticana di paleografia, diplomatica e archivistica, Città del Vaticano (1989)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Frommholz, I., Brocks, H., Thiel, U., Neuhold, E., Iannone, L., Semeraro, G., Berardi, M., Ceci, M.: Document-centered collaboration for scholars in the humanities—The COLLATE system. In: Koch, T., Sølvberg, I.T. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2003), pp. 434–445. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 2769. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Frommholz, I., Thiel, U., Kamps, T.: Annotation-based document retrieval with four-valued probabilistic datalog. In: Baeza-Yates, R., Maarek, Y., Roelleke, T., de Vries, A.P. (eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd XML and Information Retrieval Workshop and the 1st Workshop on the Integration of Information Retrieval and Databases (WIRD2004), pp. 31–38. http://homepages.cwi.nl/ arjen/wird04/wird04-proceedings.pdf [last visited 2006, October 2], 2004Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fuhr, N., Hansen, P., Micsik, A., Sølvberg, I.: Digital libraries: a generic classification scheme. In: Constantopoulos, P., Sølvberg, I.T. (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2001), pp. 187–199. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 2163. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Giovè Marchioli, N.: Gli strumenti del sapere. I manoscritti padovani tra tipizzazioni generali e peculiarità locali. In: Piovan, F., Sitran Rea, L. (eds.) Studenti, Università, città nella storia padovana. Atti del convegno (Padova, 6–8 febbraio 1998), pp. 47–71. Centro per la storia dell’Università di Padova. Contributi, 35, Lint, Trieste, Italia, 2001Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Golovchinsky, G., Price, M.N., Schilit, B.N.: From reading to retrieval: freeform ink annotations as queries. In: Gey, F., Hearst, M., Tong, R., (eds.) Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR 1999), pp. 19–25. ACM Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Halasz F.G. (1988). Reflections on note cards: seven issues for the next generation of hypermedia systems. Commun. ACM (CACM) 31(7): 836–852 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    (2003). Annotation for the Semantic Web. IOS Press, Amsterdam MATHGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    (1979). Collins Dictionary of the English Language. William Collins, Glasgow Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    IEI.: Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti, vol. XXIV (SCAR–SOC). Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, Roma (1950)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    IEI.: Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti, vol. XVII (GIAP–GS). Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, Roma (1951)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    IEI.: Vocabolario della lingua italiana, vol. I (A–C). Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Arti Grafiche Ricordi, Monotipia Olivieri, Milano (1986)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    IEI.: Vocabolario della lingua italiana, vol. II (D–L). Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Arti Grafiche Ricordi, Monotipia Olivieri, Milano (1987)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    IEI.: Vocabolario della lingua italiana, vol. III** (Pe–R). Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Arti Grafiche Ricordi, Monotipia Olivieri, Milano (1991)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    IEI.: Vocabolario della lingua italiana, vol. IV (S–Z). Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Arti Grafiche Ricordi, Monotipia Olivieri, Milano (1994)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ioannidis Y., Maier D., Abiteboul S., Buneman P., Davidson S., Fox E.A., Halevy A., Knoblock C., Rabitti F., Schek H.-J. and Weikum G. (2005). Digital library information-technology infrastructures. Int. J. Digit. Libr. 5(4): 266–274 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    ISO.: MPEG Standards—Coded representation of video and audio. http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/prodsservices/popstds/ mpeg.html [last visited 2006, October 2], July 2004Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kahan, J., Koivunen, M.-R.: Annotea: an open RDF infrastructure for shared Web annotations. In: Shen, V.Y., Saito, N., Lyu, M.R., Zurko, M.E. (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW 2001), pp. 623–632. ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Koivunen, M.-R., Swick, R., Prud’hommeaux, E.: Annotea Shared Bookmarks. http://www.w3.org/2001/Annotea/ Papers/KCAP03/annoteabm.html [last visited 2006, October 2], October 2003Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mann, W.C., Thompson, S.A.: Rhetorical structure theory: a theory of text organization. Technical Report ISI/RS-87-190, Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (CA), USA, June 1987Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marshall, C.C.: Annotation: from Paper Books to the Digital Library. In: Allen, R.B., Rasmussen, E. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries (DL 1997), pp. 233–240. ACM Press, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Marshall, C.C.: Toward an ecology of hypertext annotation. In: Akscyn, R. (ed.) Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (HT 1998): links, objects, time and space-structure in hypermedia systems, pp. 40–49. ACM Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Marshall, C.C., Brush, A.J.B.: From personal to shared annotations. In: Terveen, L., Wixon, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors and Computing Systems (CHI 2002)—Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computer Systems, pp. 812–813. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Marshall, C.C., Brush, A.J.B.: Exploring the relationship between personal and public annotations. In: Chen, H., Wactlar, H., Chen, C.-C., Lim, E.-P., Christel, M. (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL 2004), pp. 349–357. ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Marshall C.C., Golovchinsky G. and Price M.N. (2001). Digital Libraries and Mobility. Commun. ACM 44: 55–56 Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marshall, C.C., Ruotolo, C.: Reading-in-the-small: a study of reading on small form factor devices. In: Hersh, W., Marchionini, G. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL 2002), pp. 56–64. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Melis, F.: Documenti per la storia economica dei secoli XIII-CVI, con una nota di paleografia commerciale a cura di Elena Cecchi, volume 1 of Istituto internazionale di storia economica “F”. Datini Prato. Pubblicazioni—Serie I. Documenti. Olschki, Firenze (1972)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nagao K. (2003). Digital Content Annotation and Transcoding. Artech House, Norwood Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Neuhold, E., Niederée, C., Stewart, A., Frommholz, I., Mehta, B.: The role of context for information mediation in digital libraries. In: Chen, Z., Chen, H., Miao, Q., Fu, Y., Fox, E.A., Lim, E.-P. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries. Digital Libraries: International Collaboration and Cross-Fertilization (ICADL 2004), pp. 133–143. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 3334. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Paoli, C.: Diplomatica. Nuova edizione aggiornata da G. C. Bascapè, con 220 disegni e fac-simili. Le lettere, Firenze (1987)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Phelps, T.A., Wilensky, R.: Multivalent annotations. In: Peters, C., Thanos, C. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 1997), pp. 287–303. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 1324. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pigliapoco, S.: La memoria digitale delle amministrazioni pubbliche. Requisiti metodi e sistemi per la produzione, archiviazione e conservazione dei documenti informatici. Progetto ente locale, vol. 148. Maggioli editore, Santarcangelo di Romagna (2005)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pratesi, A.: Genesi e forme del documento medievale, Guide, vol. 3. Jouvance, Roma (1979)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rocci, L.: Vocabolario greco italiano, 34 edizione. Società Editrice Dante Alighieri, Italia, 1989Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rossetti, L. (ed.): Matricula Nationis Germanicae artistarum in Gymnasio Patavino (1553–1721). Con la collaborazione di Giorgetta Bonfiglio-Dosio. Fonti per la storia dell’Università di Padova, vol. 10. Antenore, Padova (1986)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Salatiele.: Ars notariae. In: Orlandelli, G. (ed.) Opere dei maestri, vol. 2. Giuffré, Milano (1961)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schilit, B.N., Price, M.N., Golovchinsky, G.: Digital library information appliances. In: Witten, I., Akscyn, R., Shipman, F.M. (eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries (DL 1998), pp. 217–226. ACM Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shipman, F., Price, M.N., Marshall, C.C., Golovchinsky, G.: Identifying useful passages in documents based on annotation patterns. In: Koch, T., Sølvberg, I.T. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2003), pp. 101–112. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 2769. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Spooner A. (1999). A Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms. Oxford University Press, New York Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stein, L.D., Eddy, S., Dowell, R.: Distributed sequence annotation system (DAS), version 1.53. http://www.biodas.org/documents/spec.html [last visited 2006, October 2], March 2002Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Thiel, U., Brocks, H., Dirsch-Weigand, A., Everts, A., Frommholz, I., Stein, A.: Queries in context: access to digitized historic documents in a collaboratory for the humanities. In: Hemmje, M., Niederée, C., Risse, T. (eds.) From Integrated Publication and Information Systems to Virtual Information and Knowledge Environments. Essays Dedicated to Erich J. Neuhold on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, pp. 117–127. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 3379. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    W3C.: EMMA: Extensible MultiModal Annotation markup language—W3C Working Draft 16 September 2005. http:// www.w3.org/TR/emma/ [last visited 2006, October 2], September 2005Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Xi W., Zhang B., Chen Z., Lu Y., Yan S., Ma W.-Y. and Fox E.A. (2004). Link fusion: a unified link analysis framework for multi-type interrelated data objects. In: Feldman, S., Uretsky, M., Najork, M., and Wills, C. (eds) Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW 2004), pp 319–327. ACM Press, New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maristella Agosti
    • 1
  • Giorgetta Bonfiglio-Dosio
    • 2
  • Nicola Ferro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information EngineeringUniversity of PaduaPadovaItaly
  2. 2.Department of HistoryUniversity of PaduaPadovaItaly

Personalised recommendations