Novel cis-active structures in the coding region mediate CRM1-dependent nuclear export of IFN-α 1 mRNA
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We recently reported the chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent nuclear export of intron-less human interferon-α1 (IFN-α1) mRNA, which encodes a main effecter of host innate immunity. We show that the coding region of IFN-α1 mRNA forms novel secondary structures that are responsible for the CRM1-dependent export of the transcript. Deletion-mutagenesis, in vivo export assays, and computer analyses of the folding potentials of export-competent fragments revealed the presence of a domain, termed the conserved secondary structure (CSS), comprising two adjacent putative stable stem-loop structures (nt 208–452). Internal deletion-mutagenesis and constitutive export assays of each stem-loop structure demonstrated that subregions 308–322 and 352–434 act as a core element by conferring the export function on the CSS. Leptomycin B (LMB) inhibition of the CRM1 pathway decreased the export of core element RNA, implying that the principal site of CRM1 action for exporting IFN-α1 mRNA resides within the core element. An RNPS1 (RNA-binding protein S1, serine-rich domain) cDNA was isolated by yeast three-hybrid screening, using bait containing two CSS regions. We showed that RNPS1 might recognize IFN-α1 mRNP that includes CRM1. The data demonstrate that interaction between RNA structures in the coding region and CRM1 affects the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of IFN-α1 mRNA.
Key wordsNuclear export IFN-α1 mRNA RNA secondary structure CRM1 RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization Yeast three-hybrid assay RNPS1
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