Thermosipho japonicus sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent in Japan
A novel barophilic, extremely thermophilic bacterium was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney at the Iheya Basin, in the Okinawa area, Japan. The cells were found to be rod shaped and surrounded by a sheath-like outer structure; the organism did not possess flagella and was not motile. Growth was observed between 45° and 80°C (optimum, 72°C, 45 min doubling time), pH 5.3 and 9.3 (optimum, pH 7.2–7.6), 6.6 and 79 g/l sea salts (optimum, 40 g/l), and 0.1 and 60 MPa (optimum, 20 MPa). Strain IHB1 was found to be a strictly anaerobic chemoorganotroph capable of utilizing yeast extract and proteinaceous substrates such as peptone and tryptone. Elemental sulfur or thiosulfate acted as electron acceptors improving growth. The isolate was able to utilize casein as a sole carbon and energy source in the presence of thiosulfate. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 31.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences and DNA–DNA hybridization analysis indicated that the isolate is closely related to Thermosipho africanus; however, it represents a species distinct from the previously described members of the genus Thermosipho. On the basis of the physiological and molecular properties, we propose that the new isolate represents a new species, which we name Thermosipho japonicus sp. nov. (type strain: IHB1; JCM10495).
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