The bacterial diversity on steam vents from Paricutín and Sapichu volcanoes
Vapor steam vents are prevailing structures on geothermal sites in which local geochemical conditions allow the development of extremophilic microorganisms. We describe the structure of the prokaryotic community able to grow on the walls and rocks of such microecosystems in two terrestrial Mexican volcanoes: Paricutín (PI and PII samples) and its satellite Sapichu (S sample). The investigated samples showed similar diversity indices, with few dominant OTUs (abundance > 1%): 21, 16 and 23, respectively for PI, PII and S. However, each steam vent showed a particular community profile: PI was dominated by photosynthetic bacteria (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexia class), PII by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and S by Ktedonobacteria class, Acidobacteria and Cyanobacteria phyla. Concerning the predicted metabolic potential, we found a dominance of cellular pathways, especially the ones for energy generation with metabolisms for sulfur respiration, nitrogen fixation, methanogenesis, carbon fixation, photosynthesis, and metals, among others. We suggest a different maturity stage for the three studied fumaroles, from the youngest (PI) to the oldest (S and PII), also influenced by the temperature and other geochemical parameters. Furthermore, four anaerobic strains were isolated, belonging to Clostridia class (Clostridium sphenoides, C. swellfunanium and Anaerocolumna cellulosilytica) and to Bacilli class (Paenibacillus azoreducens).
KeywordsExtreme environment Volcanic fumaroles Anaerobic bacteria Microbial biodiversity Predictive metagenomics profiling
This work was financially supported by BIOMETAL project (ANR-CONACyT-188775). We acknowledge the Direción de Apoyo a la Investigación y al Posgrado of Guanajuato University (DAIP) for a scholarship to Víctor Manuel Romero-Nuñez (Convocatoria Institucional de Investigación Científica, 627/2015). We are also grateful to Dra. L. M. Muñoz del Cote for kindly revising the written English of the manuscript, to Dr. B. Wemheuer for the help with Tax4Fun2 and to the anonymous referees for useful suggestions that improved the original version of the paper.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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