, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 13–27 | Cite as

Microbial community differentiation between active and inactive sulfide chimneys of the Kolumbo submarine volcano, Hellenic Volcanic Arc

  • Christos A. Christakis
  • Paraskevi N. PolymenakouEmail author
  • Manolis Mandalakis
  • Paraskevi Nomikou
  • Jon Bent Kristoffersen
  • Danai Lampridou
  • Georgios Kotoulas
  • Antonios Magoulas
Original Paper


Over the last decades, there has been growing interest about the ecological role of hydrothermal sulfide chimneys, their microbial diversity and associated biotechnological potential. Here, we performed dual-index Illumina sequencing of bacterial and archaeal communities on active and inactive sulfide chimneys collected from the Kolumbo hydrothermal field, situated on a geodynamic convergent setting. A total of 15,701 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were assigned to 56 bacterial and 3 archaeal phyla, 133 bacterial and 16 archaeal classes. Active chimney communities were dominated by OTUs related to thermophilic members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Aquificae and Deltaproteobacteria. Inactive chimney communities were dominated by an OTU closely related to the archaeon Nitrosopumilus sp., and by members of Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes. These lineages are closely related to phylotypes typically involved in iron, sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen and methane cycling. Overall, the inactive sulfide chimneys presented highly diverse and uniform microbial communities, in contrast to the active chimney communities, which were dominated by chemolithoautotrophic and thermophilic lineages. This study represents one of the most comprehensive investigations of microbial diversity in submarine chimneys and elucidates how the dissipation of hydrothermal activity affects the structure of microbial consortia in these extreme ecological niches.


Hydrothermal chimneys Submarine volcano Microbial diversity Illumina sequencing Microbial communities 



The authors acknowledge the captain and crew of R/V Aegaeo and the ROV Team for their assistance during sampling. Especially acknowledged are T. Dailianis for providing the photographs of the chimney samples upon recovery and S. Kilias for his guidance during collection of the samples. We would like to thank M. Pettas, A. Kristallas, M. Maidanou for their assistance during sampling. This work was funded by the EU-FP7 project SeaBioTech ( with Grant number 311932 and the General Secretariat for Research and Technology-GSRT and Siemens A.G. through the project “Programmatic agreements between Research Centres–GSRT 2015–2017”.

Author contributions

CC, PNP, MM, and PN performed the sampling. CC performed most of the laboratory analysis. CC and J-BK performed the sequencing analysis. PN and DL constructed the detailed bathymetric maps. PNP, GK and AM conceived the project and led the research process. CC, PNP, MM and PN processed the data and drafted the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and approved on the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 433 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 43 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (XLSX 143 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (WMV 23622 kb)

Supplementary material 5 (WMV 24707 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christos A. Christakis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paraskevi N. Polymenakou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manolis Mandalakis
    • 1
  • Paraskevi Nomikou
    • 2
  • Jon Bent Kristoffersen
    • 1
  • Danai Lampridou
    • 2
  • Georgios Kotoulas
    • 1
  • Antonios Magoulas
    • 1
  1. 1.Hellenic Centre for Marine ResearchInstitute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and AquacultureHeraklionGreece
  2. 2.Faculty of Geology and GeoenvironmentNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

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