Soda pans of the Pannonian steppe harbor unique bacterial communities adapted to multiple extreme conditions
- 356 Downloads
Soda pans of the Pannonian steppe are unique environments regarding their physical and chemical characteristics: shallowness, high turbidity, intermittent character, alkaline pH, polyhumic organic carbon concentration, hypertrophic condition, moderately high salinity, sodium and carbonate ion dominance. The pans are highly productive environments with picophytoplankton predominance. Little is known about the planktonic bacterial communities inhabiting these aquatic habitats; therefore, amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics were applied to reveal their composition and functional properties. Results showed a taxonomically complex bacterial community which was distinct from other soda lakes regarding its composition, e.g. the dominance of class Alphaproteobacteria was observed within phylum Proteobacteria. The shotgun metagenomic analysis revealed several functional gene components related to the harsh and at the same time hypertrophic environmental conditions, e.g. proteins involved in stress response, transport and hydrolase systems targeting phytoplankton-derived organic matter. This is the first detailed report on the indigenous planktonic bacterial communities coping with the multiple extreme conditions present in the unique soda pans of the Pannonian steppe.
KeywordsSoda pan Metagenomics Bacterial community composition High turbidity Environmental stress Osmoadaptation
The authors are thankful to Emil Boros, Balázs Németh and Tamás Sápi for their assistance during sampling. We are thankful to Annamária Kéri and János Kubisch for their help in establishing the computational environment for the CoVennTree program.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was financially supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (Grants OTKA PD105407, PD112449); the Momentum Grant of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (LP2012-19/2012) to CS.K, and the Bolyai János Research Grant (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) to B.S and T.F. Purchase of equipment was financed by the National Development Agency (Grants KMOP-4.2.1/B-10-2011-0002, TÁMOP-4.2.2/B-10/1-2010-0030).
- Boros E, Nagy T, Pigniczki Cs et al (2008) The effect of aquatic birds on the nutrient load and water quality of soda pans in Hungary. Acta Zool Hung 54:207–224Google Scholar
- Hammer UT (1986) Saline lake ecosystems of the world, vol 59. Springer, New York, p 15Google Scholar
- Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR et al (2010) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, the Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes, (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Satomi M, Kimura B, Hamada T et al (2002) Phylogenetic study of the genus Oceanospirillum based on 16S rRNA and gyrB genes: emended description of the genus Oceanospirillum, description of Pseudospirillum gen. nov., Oceanobacter gen. nov. and Terasakiella gen. nov. and transfer of Oceanospirillum jannaschii and Pseudomonas stanieri to Marinobacterium as Marinobacterium jannaschii comb. nov. and Marinobacterium stanieri comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:739–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Trappen S, Mergaert J, Swings J (2004) Loktanella salsilacus gen. nov., sp. nov., Loktanella fryxellensis sp. nov. and Loktanella vestfoldensis sp. nov., new members of the Rhodobacter group, isolated from microbial mats in Antarctic lakes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1263–1269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vörös L, Somogyi B, Boros E (2008) Birds cause net heterotrophy in shallow lakes. Acta Zool Acad Sci Hung 54:23–34Google Scholar