Alkalilactibacillus ikkensis, gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel enzyme-producing bacterium from a cold and alkaline environment in Greenland
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Three novel Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from a cold and alkaline environment. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains were almost identical, and that they were related to Natronobacillus azotifigens 24KS-1T (95.8% identity), Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis YIM-C158T (95.1%), Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis O15-7T (94.5%), and Halolactibacillus miurensis M23-1T (93.9%). The isolates produced amylase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and β-glucuronidase, and showed optimal growth at pH 10, at 20°C, and at 2–8% (w/v) NaCl. Major fatty acids were C14:0 (10.6–11.6%), anteiso-C15:0 (25.7–32.7%), C16:1 ω11c (12.2–16.0%), and C16:0 (14.0–20.4%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, and meso-diaminopimelic acid was found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The G+C content was 38.4%. DNA–DNA hybridization between strain GCM68T and H. miurensis M23-1T was 32.4%, while hybridization to N. azotifigens 24KS-1T, Amphibacillus tropicus Z-7792T, and Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis O15-7T was below 30%. The phylogenetic analysis and G+C content place strain GCM68T in relation to species belonging to Bacillus rRNA group 1, but phylogenetic and physiologic data combined with chemotaxonomic analyses support our proposal for a new genus, Alkalilactibacillus, gen. nov., with the novel species Alkalilactibacillus ikkensis, sp. nov. (type strain is GCM68T = DSM 19937 = LMG 24405).
Keywordsα-Galactosidase β-Galactosidase Alkaliphilic Psychrotolerant Cold-active
We acknowledge Michael Hansen for doing the SEM microscopy and Dorte Rasmussen and Karin Vestberg for technical assistance. Professor Jean Euzéby, University of Toulouse, is thanked for guidance in nomenclature. Referring to the Convention on Biological Diversity, we thank the Greenland Home Rule for permission to sample ikaite columns from the Ikka Fjord. This work was partly funded by the Villum Kann Rasmussen Foundation and the The Danish Council for Technology and Innovation.
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