Psychrophilic yeasts from Antarctica and European glaciers: description of Glaciozyma gen. nov., Glaciozyma martinii sp. nov. and Glaciozyma watsonii sp. nov.
- 641 Downloads
Field campaigns in Antarctica, Greenland and the Italian glaciers aiming to explore the biodiversity of these disappearing environments identified several undescribed yeast strains unable to grow at temperature above 20°C and belonging to unknown species. Fourteen of these strains were selected and grouped based on their morphological and physiological characteristics. Sequences of the D1/D2 and ITS regions of the ribosomal RNA demonstrated that the strains belong to unknown species related to Leucosporidium antarcticum. The new genus Glaciozyma is proposed and two new species are described, namely Glaciozyma martinii sp. nov. and Glaciozyma watsonii sp. nov. Additionally, re-classification of Leucosporidium antarcticum as Glaciozyma antarctica is proposed. Strains of Glaciozyma form a monophyletic clade and a well separated lineage within class Microbotryomycetes (Pucciniomycotina, Basidiomycota). The description of Glaciozyma genus and the re-classification of L. antarcticum reduce the polyphyletic nature of the genus Leucosporidium.
KeywordsGlaciozyma gen. nov. Glaciozyma martinii sp. nov. Glaciozyma watsonii sp. nov. Psychrophilic yeasts Antarctica European glaciers Cold-adapted biodiversity
This work was supported by the SYNTHESYS Project (http://www.synthesys.info/) which is financed by the European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP6 “Structuring the European Research Area” Programme, by FEMS (Federation of European Microbiological Societies) and by MIUR (PRIN projects 2009). We thank Raytheon Polar Support Service, UNAVCO, and PHI for logistical and laboratory support while in Antarctica. Partial funding was provided for this project by the US NSF Office of Polar Programs to L. B. Connell (OPP-0125611). The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this publication is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by the US Department of Interior or the US Geological Survey of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.
- Aime MC, Matheny PB, Henk DA, Frieders EM, Nilsson RH, Piepenbring M, McLaughlin DJ, Szabo LJ, Begerow D, Sampaio JP, Bauer R, Weiss M, Oberwinkler F, Hibbett D (2006) An overview of the higher level classification of Pucciniomycotina based on combined analyses of nuclear large and small subunit rDNA sequences. Mycologia 98(6):896–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bab’eva IP, Lisichkina GA (2000) A new species of psychrophilic basidiomycetous yeasts Leucosporidium fasciculatum sp. nov. Mikrobiologiya 69:801–804Google Scholar
- Gomes J, Steiner W (2004) The biocatalytic potential of extremophiles and extremozymes. Food Technol Biotechnol 42:223–235Google Scholar
- Kirk PM, Cannon PF, David JC, Stalper JA (2001) Dictionary of the fungi. 9th edn. Wallingford, p 655Google Scholar
- Kreger-van Rij NJW, Veenhuis M (1971) A comparative study of the cell wall structure of basidiomycetous and related yeasts. J Gen Microbiol 68:87–95Google Scholar
- Ohgiya S, Hoshino T, Okuyama H, Tanaka S, Ishizaki K (1999) In: Margesin R, Schinner F (eds) Biotechnological application of cold-adapted microorganisms. Springer, Berlin, pp 17–34Google Scholar
- Okuyama H, Morita N, Yumoto I (1999) In: Margesin R, Schinner F (eds) Biotechnological application of cold-adapted microorganisms Springer, Germany, pp 101–115Google Scholar
- Sampaio JP, Golubev WI, Fell JW, Gadanho M, Golubev NW (2004) Curvibasidium cygneicollum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum sp. nov., novel taxa in the Microbotryomycetidae (Urediniomycetes), and their relationship with Rhodotorula fujisanensis and Rhodotorula nothofagi. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1401–1407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Statzell-Tallman A, Fell JW (1998) Leucosporidium Fell, Statzell, Hunter & Phaff. In: Kurtzman CP, Fell JW, Boekhout T (eds) The yeasts, a taxonomic study, 4th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 670–675Google Scholar
- Swann EC, Frieders EM, McLaughlin DJ (2001) Urediniomycetes. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds) Systematics and evolution. The mycota VII Part B. Springer, Berlin, pp 37–56Google Scholar
- Thomas Hall SR, Turchetti B, Buzzini P, Branda E, Boekhout T, Theelen B, Watson K (2010) Cold-adapted yeasts from Antarctica and Italian Alps-description of three novel species: Mrakia robertii sp. nov., Mrakia blollopis sp. nov. and Mrakiella niccombsii sp. nov. Extremophiles 14:47–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thomas-Hall SR (2004) Physiological and biochemical characterisation of antarctic yeast. Ph.D. thesis. School of Biological, Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, The University of New England, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Weiss M, Bauer R, Begerow D (2004) Spotlights on heterobasidiomycetes. In: Agerer R, Piepenbring M, Blanz P (eds) Frontiers in basidiomycote mycology. IHW, Eching, pp 7–78Google Scholar