Characterization of Hymenobacter isolates from Victoria Upper Glacier, Antarctica reveals five new species and substantial non-vertical evolution within this genus
- 657 Downloads
We isolated several Hymenobacter-like strains from Victoria Upper Glacier, Antarctica, basal ice that diverged substantially from currently defined Hymenobacter species according to their 16S rRNA and gyrB gene phylogenies. All strains were psychrotolerant, heterotrophic aerobes which grew preferentially on low salt and low nutrient strength agar. Further phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization of these isolates supported their assignment as five novel species: H. algoricola sp. nov., H. antarcticus sp. nov., H. elongatus sp. nov., H. fastidiosus sp. nov., and H. glaciei sp. nov. Remarkable among these data was the prevalence of horizontal gene transfers and phenotypic variation, even between apparently closely related strains. These results suggest extensive non-vertical evolution within the genus Hymenobacter, and may reflect evolutionary trajectories resulting from dormancy, e.g., during interment in glacial ice.
KeywordsSystematics Taxonomy Psychrophiles Psychrophile ecology Psychrophile physiology
This work was supported by an NSERC postgraduate fellowship to J. L. K. and an NSERC Discovery Grant to J. M. F. DNA sequencing was conducted by the University of Alberta Department of Biological Sciences Molecular Biology Service Unit. We thank Dr. J. Euzéby (École Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse), Rozlyn Young (University of Alberta) and Yuumi Currah (University of Alberta) for assistance with species names, and Dr. J. Barker (University of Alberta) for provision of the VUG samples.
- Buczolits S, Denner EBM, Kämpfer P, Busse H-J (2006) Proposal of Hymenobacter norwichensis sp. nov., classification of ‘Taxeobacter ocellatus’, ‘Taxeobacter gelipurpurascens’ and ‘Taxeobacter chitinivorans’ as Hymenobacter ocellatus sp. nov., Hymenobacter gelipurpurascens sp. nov. and Hymenobacter chitinivorans sp. nov., respectively, and emended description of the genus Hymenobacter Hirsch et al. 1999. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:2071–2078CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Christensen H, Bisgaard M, Frederiksen W, Mutters R, Kuhnert P, Olsen JE (2001) Is characterization of a single isolate sufficient for valid publication of a new genus or species? Proposal to modify Recommendation 30b of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:2221–2225PubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Bruijn FJ (1992) Use of repetitive (repetitive extragenic palindromic and enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus) sequences and the polymerase chain-reaction to fingerprint the genomes of Rhizobium meliloti isolates and other soil bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:2180–2187PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Felsenstein J (1989) PHYLIP: phylogeny inference package (version 3.2). Cladistics 5:164–166Google Scholar
- Hirsch P, Ludwig W, Hethke C, Sittig M, Hoffmann B, Gallikowski CA (1998) Hymenobacter roseosalivarius gen. nov., sp. nov. from continental Antarctic soils and sandstone: bacteria of the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides line of phylogenetic descent. Syst Appl Microbiol 21:374–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hurst CJ, Crawford RL, Garland JL, Lipson DA, Mills AL, Stetzenbach LD (2007) Manual of environmental microbiology, 3rd edn. ASM Press, Herndon, VIGoogle Scholar
- Klassen JL (2009) Carotenoid diversity in novel Hymenobacter strains isolated from Victoria Upper Glacier, Antarctica, and implications for the evolution of microbial carotenoid biosynthesis. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, EdmontonGoogle Scholar
- Mojib Z, Huang J, Hoover RB, Pikuta EV, Storrie-Lombardi M, Sattler B, Andersen D, Bej AK (2009) Diversity of bacterial communities in the lakes of Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 7441:74410JGoogle Scholar
- Rainey FA, Ray K, Ferreira M, Gatz BZ, Nobre MF, Bagaley D, Rash BA, Park M-J, Earl AM, Shank NC, Small AM, Henk MC, Battista JR, Kämpfer P, da Costa MS (2005) Extensive diversity of ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria recovered from Sonoran Desert soil and description of nine new species of the genus Deinococcus obtained from a single soil sample. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5225–5235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reichenbach H (1992) Taxeobacter, a new genus of the Cytophagales with three new species. In: Jooste PJ (ed) Advances in the taxonomy and significance of Flavobaterium, Cytophaga and related bacteria, Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on Flavobacterium, Cytophaga and related bacteria. University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, pp 182–185Google Scholar